MPI (Media Pharmaceutica Indonesiana) <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: helvetica; font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: helvetica; font-size: medium;">Media Pharmaceutica Indonesiana (MPI) is a journal focusing on pharmaceutical aspects. MPI is dedicated to update and support the development of information and knowledge on pharmaceutical fields. This journal is published twice a year (June and December). MPI has been accredited by Kemenristekdikti since July 9<sup>th</sup>, 2018 with an accreditation rank of 4.</span></span></p> en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a></p> <p>Articles published in MPI are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International</a> (CC BY-SA) license. You are free to copy, transform, or redistribute articles for any lawful purpose in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and MPI, link to the license, indicate if changes were made, and redistribute any derivative work under the same license.</p> <p>Copyright on articles is retained by the respective author(s), without restrictions. A non-exclusive license is granted to MPI to publish the article and identify itself as its original publisher, along with the commercial right to include the article in a hardcopy issue for sale to libraries and individuals.</p> <p>By publishing in MPI, authors grant any third party the right to use their article to the extent provided by the CC BY-SA license.</p> (Apt. Aditya Trias Pradana, M.Si.) (Maya Harfi Anggraeni) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:07:26 +0000 OJS 60 Analisis Cost-Effectiveness Kombinasi Glimepiride-Metformin Dengan Glimepiride-Pioglitazone pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2 Rawat Jalan <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Kombinasi glimepiride-metformin merupakan lini pertama pengobatan diabetes mellitus tipe 2 (DMT 2) dan kombinasi glimepiride-pioglitazon saat ini masuk dalam daftar pedoman pelayanan kefarmasian pada pasien diabetes mellitus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kombinasi terapi manakah yang paling cost-effective antara kombinasi glimepiride-pioglitazon dibandingkan kombinasi glimepiride-metformin dalam menurunkan gula darah puasa dan HbA1c. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan 60 sampel pada kelompok kombinasi obat glimepiride-pioglitazon dan 40 sampel pada kelompok kombinasi glimepiride-metformin. Desain penelitian yang dilakukan dengan metode observasional dan alur pengumpulan data secara retrospektif. Analisa data menggunakan perhitungan ACER (Average Cost-Effectiveness Ratio) dan ICER (Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio) dan uji Mann Whitney. Hasil analisis pada kombinasi glimepiride-pioglitazon, yang memenuhi target GDP (gula darah puasa) sebanyak 21,67%, GDA sebanyak 45,00% dan HbA1c sebanyak 36,67% dengan rata-rata biaya pengobatan Rp 2.184.810,00. Sedangkan pada kelompok kombinasi glimepiride-metformin, GDP yang tercapai 2,50%, GDA yang tercapai 20,00% dan HbA1c yang tercapai sebanyak 20,00% dengan rata-rata biaya pengobatan Rp 2.198.060,00. Hasil analisis efektifitas biaya dalam menurunkan kadar GDP, GDA dan HbA1c menunjukan perbedaan efektifitas biaya untuk pengurangan per unit pada pencapaian glukosa darah dan HbA1c yang signifikan. Kombinasi glimepiride-pioglitazon merupakan terapi cost-effective yang signifikan sebagai terapi DMT2 dalam menurunkan GDP (ICER=Rp -387,767), GDA (ICER=Rp -935,074), dan HbA1c (ICER=Rp -794,841).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The glimepiride-metformin combination is the first line of treatment for T2DM and the glimepiride-pioglitazone combination is currently included in the list of pharmaceutical service guidelines for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aims to find out which combination of therapy is the most cost-effective, the glimepiride-pioglitazone combination compared to the glimepiride-metformin combination in reducing fasting blood sugar and HbA1c. In this study, 60 samples were obtained in the glimepiride-pioglitazone drug combination group and 40 samples in the glimepiride-metformin combination group. The research design was carried out using an observational method and a retrospective data collection flow. Data analysis used ACER (Average Cost-Effectiveness Ratio) and ICER (Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio) calculations and the Mann Whitney test. The results of the analysis on the glimepiride-pioglitazone combination, which met the GDP target (fasting blood sugar) of 21.67%, GDA of 45.00% and HbA1c of 36.67% with an average treatment cost of IDR 2,184,810.00. Meanwhile, in the glimepiride-metformin combination group, GDP was achieved at 2.50%, GDA was achieved at 20.00% and HbA1c was achieved at 20.00% with an average treatment cost of IDR 2,198,060.00. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis in reducing GDP, GDA and HbA1c levels show that the difference in cost-effectiveness for the reduction per unit in achieving blood glucose and HbA1c is significant and the combination of glimepiride-pioglitazone is a significant cost-effective therapy as DMT2 therapy in reducing GDP (ICER=IDR -387,767), GDA (ICER=IDR -935,074), and HbA1c (ICER=IDR -794,841).</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Apridita Anggun Pambagyanik, Amelia Lorensia, Abdul Rahem Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 10:00:01 +0000 RP-HPLC Method Validation for Purity Assay of α-Mangostin Isolate <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The quality of natural products regarding the purity of their active compounds, such as α-mangostin isolate from mangosteen pericarp, may vary depending on cultivation, harvest season, and isolation process. Thus, extensive isolation procedures are involved in obtaining a certain level of purity of the active compounds. Studies on the yield of α-mangostin isolate and its effectiveness as an active compound in health care have been reported. The quality parameter of the isolate as the intended active compound can be indicated by its purity level. Measuring the purity of the active compound is proposed to define the grade α-mangostin isolate as a starting material or even reference standard. The higher the purity level of α-mangostin isolate, the greater its potential as a reference standard candidate. Therefore, a selective analytical method is required to measure the purity level accurately. For this reason, a rapid analytical method to ensure α-mangostin isolate was developed and validated to confirm its purity. Separation condition semployed an X-Terra® C18 column 5 μm, 4.6 x 150 mm under an isocratic system with a mobile phase composition of MeCN:water (85:15) at a flowrate of 0.5 mL/ min and a detector wavelength of 243 nm were selected. Acceptable validation parameters of linearity in the range of 2.6 –52 μg/mL with r2 = 0,9994, Vx0 = 2.64%; accuracy 96.38 – 100.99%; precision 1.36%; and LOD/LOQ = 4.6 μg/mL/ 13.7μg/mL were achieved. The validated method was successfully applied to the purity assay α-mangostinisolate with a run time of less than 9 minutes.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Ratih Ratih, Krisyanti Budipramana, Adang Firmansyah Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:00:29 +0000 Pengaruh Telefarmasi Terhadap Kepatuhan dan Target Pengobatan Pasien DMT2 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Telefarmasi adalah pelayanan kefarmasian yang mana apoteker dan pasien tidak pada tempat dan waktu yang sama. Telefarmasi menggunakan fitur WhatsApp (WA) diharapkan memberi informasi, konsultasi, dan pemantauan terapi obat (PTO) terhadap perilaku pasien dalam penggunaan obat, yaitu kepatuhan dan pengaruhnya terhadap ketercapaian target gula darah puasa (GDP) dalam pengelolaan DM tipe 2 (T2DM). Tujuan riset ini adalah melihat pengaruh telefarmasi menggunakan WA terhadap kepatuhan dan target GDP pasien T2DM di Apotek Pulosari Surabaya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan kuantitatif dengan pra-experimental one group pretest-posttest design. Sampel ditentukan secara total sampling memperhatikan kriteria penelitian. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner Brief Medication Questionnare (BMQ), untuk menilai hambatan kepatuhan pasien dan menghitung jumlah obat (pill counts) serta pengukuran GDP menggunakan glukometer oleh peneliti yang dilakukan pre-post intervensi selama 30 hari. Hasil pill counts sebelum intervensi menunjukkan 61,29% pasien tidak patuh. Setelah intervensi telefarmasi terdapat peningkatan kepatuhan, pasien yang tidak patuh senilai 24,19%. Hasil BMQ sebelum intervensi 82,26% sedangkan setelah intervensi terdapat penurunan hambatan kepatuhan 27,42%. Hasil pemantauan GDP setelah intervensi sebanyak 83,87% pasien mencapai target GDP. Setelah intervensi telefarmasi terdapat peningkatan ketercapaian target, dimana pasien yang belum mencapai target sebesar 16,13%. Pelayanan telefarmasi yang diberikan apoteker dapat menurunkan hambatan pasien dalam mengikuti rejimen terapinya dan signifikan meningkatkan kepatuhan dan ketercapaian target dalam pengobatan T2DM.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Telepharmacy is a pharmaceutical service using WhatsApp (WA) feature to provide information, consultation, and drug therapy monitoring to the patients, adherence and it’s effect on fasting blood glucose targets achievement in the management of type 2 DM (DMT2). The aim is to see telepharmacy effect using WA on adherence and achievement the target of T2DM patients at the Pulosari Pharmacy, Surabaya. This research used quantitative with pre-experimental one group pretest-posttest design. The sample was determined total sampling considering the research criteria. Data collection used Brief Medication Questionnare (BMQ), to assess patient’s adherence barriers by pill counts and measuring blood glucose with glucometer before and after intervention during 30 days. The results before intervention was 61.29% patients did not comply. After intervention, there was 24.19% of patients who did not comply. The results of the BMQ before intervention was 82.26% and there was a decrease after intervention in compliance barriers 27.42%. Monitored blood glucose after intervention was 83.87% of patients reached the target. After the intervention, patients who had not reached the target was 16.13%. Telepharmaceutical services provided by pharmacists can reduce patient barriers in followingtheir therapy regimens and significantly increase adherence and target achievement in the treatment of T2DM.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Nuke Saswita, Lisa Aditama, Amelia Lorensia Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 10:59:55 +0000 Pengaruh Obat Antituberkulosis Kombinasi RHZE Terhadap Peningkatan Kadar Asam Urat <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Tuberkulosis paru merupakan penyakit infeksius yang diakibatkan oleh bakteri Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pasien tuberkulosis paru memperoleh pengobatan kombinasi obat antituberkulosis (OAT). Pada pengobatan kategori I, pasien mendapatkan kombinasi RHZE pada tahap intensif selama 2 bulan. Adanya obat pirazinamid (Z) dan etambutol (E) dalam regimen terapi berisiko menyebabkan efek samping berupa peningkatan kadar asam urat di dalam darah. Efek samping tersebut dapat menyebabkan problem medis berupa gout maupun gangguan fungsi ginjal. Oleh karena itu, apoteker harus memantau risiko efek samping OAT pada pasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh penggunaan OAT kombinasi RHZE terhadap kadar asam urat pasien. Penelitian yang dilakukan di Puskesmas Citangkil Kota Cilegon ini merupakan penelitian observasional kohort. Penelitian dilakukan selama bulan April – Juni 2023. Jumlah subjek penelitian yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi sebanyak 36 pasien. Pemeriksaan kadar asam urat dilakukan sebelum pasien minum OAT (minggu ke-0) dan minggu ke-4 setelah minum OAT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata kadar asam urat pasien laki-laki pada minggu ke-0 dan minggu ke-4 masing-masing sebesar 5,09 ± 0,9 mg/dL dan 12,02 ± 1,59 mg/dL. Sementara itu, pada pasien perempuan masing-masing sebesar 5,06 ± 0,94 mg/dL dan 11,98 ± 1,69 mg/dL. Hasil uji t berpasangan menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan secara statistik terhadap rerata kadar asam urat pada minggu ke-0 dan ke-4 (p &lt; 0,001). Dari hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa penggunaan OAT RHZE pada pasien tuberkulosis paru selama 4 minggu dapat menyebabkan peningkatan kadar asam urat.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis undergo combination anti-tuberculosis drug (ATD) therapy. In category I treatment, patients receive a combination of RHZE during the intensive phase for 2 months. The inclusion of pyrazinamide (Z) and ethambutol (E) in the therapy regimen carries the risk of side effects, including an increase in uric acid levels in the bloodstream. These side effects can result in medical issues, such as gout and kidney function disturbances. As a result, it is crucial for pharmacists to monitor the potential side effects of ATD in patients. This study aimed to analyze the impact of RHZE combination ATD use on patients’ uric acid levels. This research was conducted at Citangkil Community Health Center in Cilegon City, and was an observational cohort study started from April to June 2023, involving a total of 36 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Uric acid levels were assessed both before patients initiated ATD treatment (week 0) and at week 4 after commencing ATD. The findings indicated that the mean uric acid levels for male patients at week 0 and week 4 were 5.09 ± 0.9 mg/dL and 12.02 ± 1.59 mg/dL, respectively. For female patients, the corresponding levels were 5.06 ± 0.94 mg/dL and 11.98 ± 1.69 mg/dL. Paired t-test results revealed a statistically significant difference in mean uric acid levels between week 0 and week 4 (p &lt; 0.001). In conclusion, the use of RHZE combination ATD in pulmonary tuberculosis patients for 4 weeks could lead to an elevation in uric acid levels.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Ika Prima Azzahra, Sri Winarsih, Ema Pristi Yunita Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:01:13 +0000 Antihypertension Activity of Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit Juice on Sodium Chloride and Prednisone-Induced Rats <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Hypertension is a condition where systolic and diastolic blood pressure continuously increases, causing heart disease, kidney disease, hardening of the arteries, eye damage, and stroke (brain damage). Bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) is traditionally used to lowering high blood pressure. The research objective was evaluating the activity of A. bilimbi as an antihypertensive. The research was conducted in vivo using rats and the CODA blood pressure analysis instrument. The doses used for A. bilimbi juice were 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg BW, respectively. A. bilimbi juice at a dose of 600 mg/kg BW/day for 14 days can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure in male Wistar rats induced by 2.5% NaCl and 1.5 mg/kg BW prednisone. The results of the study showed that A. bilimbi juice at a dose of 600 mg/kg BW. had antihypertensive activity.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Ari Yuniarto, Dini Alviolita, Ika Kurniasukmawati, La Ode Akbar Rasydy Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:01:59 +0000 Hubungan Pelayanan Farmasi dengan Kepatuhan Pengobatan Pasien Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronik (PPOK) <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Pelayanan farmasi dibutuhkan untuk mendorong pengobatan yang optimal guna mengurangi resiko kejadian Penyakit Paru Obetruktif Kronik (PPOK). Pelayanan farmasi yang berkualitas mampu meningkatkan kepatuhan pengobatan melalui kepuasan pasien setelah mendapatkan pelayanan yang baik, sehingga mempengaruhi minat pasien dalam menjalankan dan melanjutkan pengobatan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis hubungan pelayanan farmasi dengan kepatuhan pengobatan pasien PPOK di RSUD dr. Soeratno Gemolong. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan desain penelitian analitik cross sectional. Teknik sampling menggunakan consecutive sampling agar sesuai kriteria inklusi dalam kurun waktu tertentu. Pengambilan data dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner dan data rekam medik pasien PPOK rawat inap di RSUD dr. Soeratno Gemolong. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 48 orang pasien PPOK rawat inap. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis univariat, bivariat, dan multivariat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kualitas pelayanan farmasi rawat inap RSUD dr. Soeratno Gemolong tergolong baik. Pelayanan farmasi dimensi bukti langsung/fisik (tangible), dimensi ketanggapan (responsiveness), dimensi jaminan kepastian (assurance), dan dimensi kepedulian (emphaty) berhubungan signifikan dengan kepatuhan pengobatan. Kesimpulan, pelayanan farmasi memiliki hubungan dengan kepatuhan pengobatan pasien PPOK di RSUD dr. Soeratno Gemolong dengan korelasi rendah dan arah hubungan yang positif.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Pharmaceutical services are needed to encourage optimal treatment to reduce the risk of COPD. Quality pharmacy services are able to improve treatment adherence through patient satisfaction after getting good service, thus affecting patient interest in carrying out and continuing treatment. The purpose of this study were determining and analyzing the relationship between pharmaceutical services and treatment compliance of COPD patients at RSUD dr. Soeratno Gemolong. This research is a quantitative research with a cross-sectional analytical research design. The sampling technique uses consecutive sampling to fit the inclusion criteria within a certain period of time. Data collection was carried out using questionnaires and medical record data of inpatient COPD patients at RSUD dr. Soeratno Gemolong. The number of samples were 48 inpatient COPD patients. The data was analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. The results showed that the quality of inpatient pharmacy services at RSUD dr. Soeratno Gemolong was good. Pharmaceutical services dimensions of direct/physical evidence (tangible), dimensions of responsiveness (responsiveness), dimensions of assurance (assurance), and dimensions of concern (emphaty) were significantly related to treatment adherence. In conclusion, pharmaceutical services have a relationship with treatment compliance of COPD patients at RSUD dr. Soeratno Gemolong with low correlation and positive relationship direction.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Giyan Fitriarahmah, Jason Merari Peranginangin, Yane Dila Keswara Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:03:05 +0000 Hubungan Penggunaan Kombinasi Antihipertensi Dengan Luaran Neonatal pada Pasien Preeklamsia <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Hipertensi selama kehamilan meningkatkan risiko terjadinya komplikasi maternal. Preeklamsia merupakan komplikasi yang umumnya paling sering terjadi selama masa kehamilan. Komplikasi pada masa kehamilan berdampak pada pemburukan luaran neonatal. Manajemen terapi yang tepat pada pasien preeklamsia dihubungkan dengan luaran neonatal yang lebih baik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan penggunaan antihipertensi pada pasien preeklamsia pada fasilitas kesehatan sekunder di Tasikmalaya dan menilai hubungan antara pemberian kombinasi antihipertensi dengan luaran neonatal yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini merupakan studi multisenter menggunakan desain potong lintang secara retrospektif dari Juli 2018-Juni 2023. Selama periode penelitian didapat 88 pasien bersalin dengan diagnosa preeklamsia yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Metildopa, nifedipin, dan amlodipin merupakan antihipertensi yang digunakan pada populasi studi dimana kombinasi antihipertensi yang digunakan diantaranya adalah kombinasi amlodipin dengan metildopa atau nifedipin dengan metildopa. Pada populasi studi, metildopa merupakan antihipertensi yang paling sering digunakan. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan antara penggunaan kombinasi antihipertensi dengan luaran neonatal. Namun, pasien dengan terapi kombinasi antihipertensi memiliki prevalensi lebih tinggi untuk luaran neonatal yang tidak diinginkan.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Hypertension during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal complications. Preeclampsia is the most common complication that appears during pregnancy. Complications during pregnancy had a poor impact on neonatal outcomes. Appropriate therapy management in preeclampsia patients is suggested to improve neonatal outcomes. This study aimed to describe the use of antihypertensives in preeclampsia in Tasikmalaya and assess the association between the combination of antihypertensives with neonatal outcomes. This was a multi-center study with a cross-sectional design retrospectively from July 2018 to June 2023. In the study period, 88 maternal deliveries with preeclampsia met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methyldopa, nifedipine, and amlodipine were used in the study population whereas amlodipine with metildopa or nifedipine with metildopa were the option of antihypertensive combination. In the study population, metildopa was the most frequently used antihypertensive. The analysis results showed there was no association between using a combination of antihypertensives and neonatal outcomes. However, patients treated with combination antihypertensive had a higher prevalence of unfavorable neonatal outcomes.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Adila Awaludin, Mochamad Herdi Nurzaman, Annisa, Nita Herdianti Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:03:45 +0000 Analisis Penggunaan Antibiotik pada Pasien Rawat Inap Dengan Metode Defined Daily Dose <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Antibiotik adalah obat yang digunakan untuk mencegah dan mengobati infeksi bakteri. Penggunaan antibiotik yang kurang tepat dapat memicu resistensi antibiotik yang merupakan masalah terbesar bagi kesehatan manusia. Resistensi antibiotik dapat meningkatkan length of stay (LOS), meningkatkan biaya pengobatan, dan meningkatkan angka mortalitas. Salah satu cara untuk menanggulangi resistensi antibiotik adalah dengan penggunaan antibiotik secara bijak. Metode Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD) digunakan untuk menilai kuantitas penggunaan antibiotika. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui nilai DDD dan Drug Utilization (DU) 90% dari antibiotik. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian cross-sectional dengan pengambilan data secara retrospektif yang dilakukan pada Januari 2021-Desember 2021 di Rumah Sakit dr. Soedarso Pontianak. Data dianalisis menggunakan metode DDD dan DU 90%. Kriteria inklusi yaitu pasien rawat inap penyakit dalam dengan diagnosa infeksi yang menggunakan antibiotika. Jumlah sampel didapatkan 37 pasien yang selanjutnya dianalisis menggunakan metode ATC/DDD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai total DDD pemakaian antibiotika adalah 83,3/100 pasien-hari dengan total length of stay (LOS) pasien adalah 215 hari. Antibiotika dengan nilai DDD paling tinggi adalah seftriakson yaitu 42,3/100 pasien-hari. Antibiotika yang masuk ke dalam segmen DU 90% yaitu seftriakson, levofloksasin, dan metronidazol, sehingga harus dipantau penggunaannya karena berpotensi pada risiko resistensi bakteri terhadap antibiotika.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Antibiotics are drugs used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Improper use of antibiotics can trigger antibiotic resistance, which is the biggest problem for human health. Antibiotic resistance can increase the length of stay (LOS), increase treatment costs, and increase mortality rates. One way to overcome antibiotic resistance is to use antibiotics wisely. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD) method is used to assess the quantity of antibiotic use. The purpose of this study was determining the value of DDD and drug utilization (DU) 90% of antibiotics. This study was a cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection conducted in internal January – December 2021 at Dr. Soedarso Pontianak Hospital, and the data was analyzed using the DDD and DU 90% methods. The inclusion criteria were internal medicine inpatients with a diagnosis of infection treated with antibiotics. The number of samples obtained were 37, which were then analyzed using the ATC/DDD method. The results showed that the total value of DDD for antibiotic use was 83.3/100 patients/day and the total length of stay (LOS) of patients was 215 days. Ceftriaxone, with a DDD of 42.3/100 patient-day, had the highest DDD value. Meanwhile, antibiotics that fall into the 90% DU segment were ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin, so their use must be monitored because of the potential risk of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Maria Oktavia, Suharjono, Windi Virdiyanti Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:04:44 +0000 Efektivitas Tonikum Tepung Ikan Sepat Rawa (Trichopodus thricopterus) Dengan Metode Rotarod Test <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Ikan Sepat Rawa (Trichopodus thricopterus) memiliki senyawa asam amino yang berpotensi sebagai tonikum. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek tepung ikan sepat rawa sebagai tonikum. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental menggunakan Rotarod Test yang dilakukan pada hari ke 1 dan hari ke 7 dengan menggunakan mencit jantan sebanyak 25 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok masing-masing kontrol negative (NaCMC), positif (Kafein 100mg/kgBB), dan kelompok dengan dosis 50,100 dan 150 mg/kgBB. Hasil menunjukan rata-rata jumlah jatuh kumulatif dalam 3×10 menit dan % efek tonikum hewan uji pada hari ke 1 pada kelompok kontrol negatif, positif dosis 50,100, dan 150mg/kgBB masing-masing sebesar 88,6 &amp; 0%; 26,8 &amp; 69,7%; 23 &amp; 74,04%; 24 &amp; 72,91%, 40,8 &amp; 53,73% sementara pada hari ke 7 nilainya sebesar 88,6 &amp; 0%; 17,8 &amp; 79,90%; 15,4 &amp; 82,61%; 17 &amp; 80,81%, dan 19,6 &amp; 77,87%. Berdasarkan hasil analisis Kurskal-Wallis pada hari ke 1 dan ke 7 sama-sama menunjukan tidak adanya perbedaan bermakna antara dosis pemberian (50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg)/kgBB dan kontrol positif dengan nilai sig&gt;0,05. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan dosis pemberian 50 mg/kgBB memiliki efek tonikum yang terbaik dibandingkan dengan dosis pemberian 100 mg/kgBB dan 150 mg/kgBB.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Sepat Rawa (Trichopodus thricopterus) has amino acid compounds considered to have potential as a tonic. This study aimed to determine the sepat rawa fish powder as a tonic. The experiment was performed with the Rotarod Test method in 3×10 minutes, carried out on day 1 and day 7 using 25 male mice that divided into 5 groups, namely negative control group (Na-CMC); positive control group (Caffeine 100 mg/BW); and group with 50,100 dan 150 mg/kgBB doses. The results showed that the average number of cumulative in 3×10 minutes and percentage of tonic effect on first day on negative control until 150 mg/kgBW Doses were 88,6 &amp; 0%; 26.8 &amp; 69.7%; 23 &amp; 74.04%; 24 &amp; 72.91%; 40.8 &amp; 53.73% and at the seventh showed 88,6 &amp; 0%; 17.8 &amp; 79.90%; 15.4 &amp; 82.61% 17&amp; 80.81%; 19.6 &amp; 77.87%. Based on the results of SPSS analysis using Kurskal-Wallis on day 1 and 7, both showed no significant difference between the dose of administration (50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg)/kgBB and a positive control with a sig&gt;0,05. It can be concluded that the tonic effect in dose 50 mg/kgBW has better than others.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Karunita Ika Astuti, Fitriyanti, Siti Alista Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:05:28 +0000 Formulasi dan Evaluasi Edible Film dari Ekstrak Terpurifikasi Daun Beluntas (Pluchea indica L.) Sebagai Anti-Sariawan <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Sariawan adalah luka akibat iritasi pada gusi, lidah, dan lapisan dalam mulut. Tanaman yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai obat sariawan yaitu beluntas (Pluchea indica Less). Salah satu sediaan yang efektif untuk mengobati sariawan yaitu edible film. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuat edible film dari ekstrak terpurifikasi daun beluntas dan mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri edible film terhadap Staphylococcus aureus. Penelitian dimulai dari ekstraksi dan purifikasi ekstrak, pembuatan edible film, evaluasi fisik sediaan dan uji aktivitas antibakteri sediaan menggunakan metode dilusi padat. Formula edible film terdiri dari ekstrak terpurifikasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5% dan formula tanpa ekstrak. Hasil evaluasi fisik menunjukkan berat rata-rata edible film dari masing-masing fomula yaitu 0,25-0,41 g. Ketebalan edible film yaitu 0,07-0,14 mm. Daya lipat yang dihasilkan lebih dari 300 kali, pH permukaan senilai 6,47-6,73. Waktu larut dari edible film yaitu 25-32 detik. Uji aktivitas antibakteri menggunakan semua formula edible film, formula tanpa ekstrak (kontrol negatif) dan Betadine obat kumur (kontrol positif ). Hasil pengujian antibakteri diperoleh semua formula memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap S. aureus, dengan konsentrasi hambat minimum dan konsentrasi bunuh minimum yaitu 2,5%. Kesimpulan penelitian ini yaitu edible film ekstrak terpurifikasi daun beluntas memenuhi kriteria mutu fisik edible film yang baik dan memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap S. aureus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Stomatitis are sores caused by irritation of the gums, tongue and lining of the mouth. A plant that can be used as a medicine for stomatitis is beluntas (Pluchea indica Less). One of the effective preparations for stomatitis treatment is edible film. The aim of this research were making edible film from purified extract of beluntas leaves and determining the antibacterial activity of edible film against Staphylococcus aureus. The research started from extraction and purification of the extract, making the edible film, physical evaluation of the products and testing the antibacterial activity using solid dilution method. Edible film formula consists of purified extract 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and a formula without extract. The results of physical evaluation showed that the average weight of edible film from each formula were 0.25-0.41 g. The thickness of the edible film were 0.07-0.14 mm. Folding power were more than 300 times. The surface pH were 6.47-6.73 and the dissolution time were 25-32 seconds. The antibacterial activity test used all edible film formulas, formulas without extract (negative control) and Betadine mouthwash (positive control). The antibacterial test results showed that all formulas had antibacterial activity against S. aureus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration and a minimum bactericidal concentration of 2.5%. The conclusion of this research is edible film from purified extract of beluntas leaves qualified good physical quality of edible film and has antibacterial activity against S. aureus.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Mustika Endah Pratiwi, Claudius Hendraman Boli Tobi Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 11:06:08 +0000