Profil Gaya Kognitif Empathizing-Systemizing pada Anak Indonesia

  • Ni Putu Adelia Kesumaningsari Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Surabaya, Raya Kalirungkut Surabaya, 60293-Indonesia
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Keywords: Empathizing Quotient (EQ), Extreme Male Brain of Autism, Jenis Kelamin, Systemizing Quotient (SQ)


AbstractThe present study examined Empathizing-Systemizing Theory (E-S Theory) in Indonesian Children. E-S Theory has known as a theory that is attempted to explain the cluster of both the social and non-social features in autism spectrum conditions. Children’s version of the Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) were administered to 372 Indonesia parents who had typically developed children aged 4-11 years old (boys = 182, girls = 190). The results showed that the girls scored higher that boys on EQ-C . In the case of SQ-C, there were no differences between boys and girls. However, the proportion of cognitive style shows clear individual differences between boys and girls. The proportion of participants with empathizing dominant cognitive sytle was shown higher by girls than boys, which distributed to E and Extreme E brain types, while the proportion of systemizing dominant cognitive styles is higher in boys whom brain types spread across the Type S and Extreme S categories. This study explaining inherited biological factors of autism and  underscore the vulnerability among  boys to develop autism spectrum condition if compared to girls.
Keywords: Empathizing Quotient (EQ), extreme male brain of autism, sex, Systemizing Quotient (SQ)

Abstrak—Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji teori Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S Theory) pada konteks anak Indonesia. E-S Theory dikenal sebagai sebuah teori yang digunakan untuk melihat gugus fitur sosial dan non-sosial kondisi spektrum autisme. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 372 orang tua Indonesia dengan anak berusia 4-11 tahun (anak laki-laki = 182, perempuan = 190), M usia = 7 Tahun, SD= 2.423 yang diminta untuk mengisi skala Empathizing Quotient (EQ) dan Systemizing Quotient (SQ). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahwa tingkat empati anak perempuan lebih tinggi daripada tingkat empati anak laki-laki. Dalam hal mensistemasi tidak ditemukan adanya perbedaan kemampuan antara anak laki-laki dan perempuan. Namun, proporsi gaya kognitif menunjukkan adanya perbedaan individual yang signifikan antara anak laki-laki dan perempuan. Gaya kognitif dominan berempati lebih tinggi pada anak perempuan, yang tersebar pada kategori tipe otak E dan Ekstrim E, sedangkan proporsi gaya kognitif mensistemasi lebih tinggi pada anak laki-laki dengan tipe otak yang tersebar pada kategori Tipe S dan Ekstrim S.  Hasil penelitian ini memberikan bukti adanya faktor biologis bawaan dari autism ditinjau dari jenis kelamin dan menunjukkan kerentanan bawaan anak laki-laki terhadap kondisi autism jika dibandingkan dengan anak perempuan.
Kata kunci: Empathizing Quotient (EQ), extreme male brain of autism, jenis kelamin, Systemizing Quotient (SQ)


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How to Cite
Kesumaningsari, N. P. A. (2020). Profil Gaya Kognitif Empathizing-Systemizing pada Anak Indonesia. KELUWIH: Jurnal Sosial Dan Humaniora, 1(2), 108-121.
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