Screening for Plagiarism

Plagiarism and self-plagiarism are things that we strictly avoid. The manuscript submitted must be the author's original work and not the result of plagiarism. Each manuscript will be checked through plagiarism detection software. Each author is fully responsible for writing the manuscript and must have a maximum plagiarism level of 25%, beyond which the editorial board has the right to reject the manuscript. However, within the academic and professional realms, plagiarism takes various forms, each of which constitutes a breach of ethical standards and may lead to severe consequences. Here, we delineate three forms of prohibited plagiarism: word-to-word plagiarism, plagiarism over the source, and plagiarism of authorship.

1. Word-to-Word Plagiarism:
Word-to-word plagiarism, also known as verbatim plagiarism or direct plagiarism, occurs when an individual reproduces another person's work, ideas, or language verbatim without proper attribution. This form of plagiarism involves copying sentences, paragraphs, or entire passages from a source without using quotation marks or citing the original author. Word-to-word plagiarism falsely represents the copied text as one's own creation, depriving the original author of due credit and misleading readers about the true origins of the material.

2. Plagiarism Over the Source:
Plagiarism over the source, also referred to as mosaic plagiarism or patchwriting, involves paraphrasing or rearranging the words and ideas of a source without proper citation. While the plagiarist may not reproduce the original text verbatim, they fail to sufficiently rephrase the content or adequately acknowledge the source. Plagiarism over the source often arises from a misunderstanding of proper citation practices or an attempt to conceal the reliance on external sources. However, it still constitutes a form of plagiarism because it misleads readers about the originality of the work and violates the intellectual property rights of the source author.

3. Plagiarism of Authorship:
Plagiarism of authorship occurs when an individual claims authorship of a work or idea that they did not create or substantially contribute to. This form of plagiarism extends beyond textual reproduction and encompasses the appropriation of intellectual creations, such as ideas, concepts, or research findings, without acknowledgment of the original creator. Plagiarism of authorship not only misrepresents the plagiarist's own contributions but also deprives the true originator of recognition and attribution for their work.

In summary, prohibited plagiarism encompasses various forms of intellectual dishonesty, including word-to-word plagiarism, plagiarism over the source, and plagiarism of authorship. Upholding ethical standards and academic integrity requires authors to accurately attribute the ideas and contributions of others, thereby ensuring transparency, fairness, and respect for intellectual property rights within scholarly discourse.