Pengaruh Komposisi Beras dan Lama Fermentasi terhadap Water Kefir Beras Hitam (Oryza Sativa L.)

  • Maria Jessica Fakultas Teknobilogi Universitas Surabaya, Kalirungkut, Surabaya ‐ Indonesia 60293
  • Ardhia Deasy Rosita Dewi Fakultas Teknobilogi Universitas Surabaya, Kalirungkut, Surabaya ‐ Indonesia 60293
  • Tjandra Pantjajani Fakultas Teknobilogi Universitas Surabaya, Kalirungkut, Surabaya ‐ Indonesia 60293
Abstract Views: 147 PDF Downloads: 192
Keywords: beras hitam, lama fermentasi, water kefir beras hitam, black rice, fermentation time, black rice water kefir

Abstract

Abstrak- Beras hitam memiliki kandungan antosianin yang paling baik, yang bersifat sebagai antioksidan. Namun, perlakuan termal pada proses pemasakan beras hitam menyebabkan 80-94% antosianin terdegradasi. Oleh karena itu, dilakukan fermentasi water kefir menggunakan bahan baku beras hitam untuk meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh komposisi beras dan lama fermentasi terhadap perubahan parameter water kefir beras hitam menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan faktor komposisi beras 1:5, 1:10, dan 1:15 (b/v) serta faktor lama fermentasi 22 dan 28 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi beras dan lama fermentasi berinteraksi terhadap perubahan kadar gula total dan asam laktat secara signifikan, serta mempengaruhi perubahan kadar total asam tertitrasi (TAT), pH, etanol, aktivitas antioksidan, dan total BAL dan khamir pada water kefir beras hitam. Hasil uji organoleptik water kefir dengan komposisi beras hitam (b/v) 1:15 dan lama fermentasi 22 jam yang paling disukai oleh panelis, dengan karakteristik warna coklat kemerahan, aroma kurang asam, rasa manis yang netral, kurang beralkohol, kurang asam, dan aftertaste yang tidak pahit. Hasil uji mikroba kontaminan Salmonella sp. dan coliform pada water kefir beras hitam adalah negatif.
Kata kunci: beras hitam, lama fermentasi, water kefir beras hitam


Abstract- Black rice has the best anthocyanin content which has antioxidant acitivity. However, thermal treatment can cause 80-94% anthocyanin to be degraded. Therefore, this study using black rice to make water kefir so that antioxidant acitivity increased. This study aimed to determine the influence of rice composition and fermentation time of black rice water kefir using randomized block design with rice composition 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 (b/v) and fermentation time 22 and 28 hours as the factors. The results showed that rice composition and fermentation time interacted the changes of total sugar level and lactic acid significantly, and influenced the changes of titrated total acid, pH, ethanol, antioxidant activity, and lactic acid bacteria and yeasts total plate count on black rice water kefir. The organoleptic test results showed that water kefir with black rice composition (b/v) 1:15 and 22 hours fermentation time was most preferred by panelists, which has reddish brown color, less acidic aroma, neutral sweetness, less alcoholic taste, less acidic taste, and not bitter aftertaste. Contaminant microbe test results for Salmonella sp. and coliform were negative.
Keywords: black rice, fermentation time, black rice water kefir

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Apriyantono A, Fardiaz D, Puspitasari NL, Sedarnawati Y, Budianto S. (1989). Petunjuk Laboratorium Analisis Pangan. Bogor: Pusat Antar Universitas. Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Association of Official Analitycal Chemist (AOAC). (1995). Official Methods of Analisys Chemist. Vol. 1A. Wahington: AOAC, Inc.

Barker, S. H. & William H. Summerson. (1941). The Colorimetric Determination of Lactic Acid in Biological Material. J. Biol. Chem. 1941, 138:535-554.

Brouillard, R. (1983). The in vivo expression of anthocyanin color in plants. Phytochemistry 22(6):1311–23. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84008-X.

Cheirsilp, B., Shoji, H., Shimizu, H., & Shioya, S. (2003). Interactions between Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed culture for kefiran production. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering,

(3), 279–84.

Clifford, M. N. (2000). Anthocyanins – nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric 80:1063–72. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:71063:AID-JSFA6053. 0.CO;2-Q.

Codex Standard. (2003). Codex Standard for Fermented Milks: Codex Stan 243- 2003. Roma: FAO United Nations.

Duda-Chodak, A., Tomasz Tarko, Paweł Satora, and Paweł Sroka. (2015). Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: a review. Europian Journal of Nutrition. 2015; 54(3): 325–341.

Fardiaz, Srikandi. (1992). Mikrobiologi Pangan I. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Gad, A. S., A. M. Kholif dan A. F. Sayed. (2010). Evaluation of The Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting From Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk. Am. J. Food Technology. 5: 250-259.

Gulitz, A., Stadie, J., Wenning, M., Ehrmann, M. A., dan Vogel, R. F. (2011). The Microbial Diversity of Water Kefir. International Journal of Food Microbiology 151(3): 284-288.

Haryadi, H. (2013). Analisa Kadar Alkohol Hasil Fermentasi Ketan Dengan Metode Kromatografi Gas Dan Uji Aktifitas Saccharomyces cereviceae Secara Mikroskopis. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro.

Hiemori, M., Koh, E., & Mitchell, A. E. (2009). Influence of cooking on anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 1908–1914.

Hornedo-Ortega, R., M. Antonia Alvarez-Fernandez, Ana B. Cerezo, Isidoro Garcia-Garcia, Ana M. Troncoso, and M. Carmen Garcia-Parrilla. (2017). Influence of Fermentation Process on the Anthocyanin Composition of Wine and Vinegar Elaborated from Strawberry. Journal of Food Science, Vol. 82, Nr. 2, 364-372.

Kaneda, I., Kubo F., and Sakurai H. (2006). Antioxidative Compounds in the Extract of Black Rice Brans. Journal of Health Science. 2006; 52(5):495511.

Kristamtini & Heni P. (2010a). Pemanfaatan Plasma Nutfah Beras Hitam lokal Yogyakarta sebagai bahan Pangan Fungsional, in: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hasil Penelitian Padi 2009, Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi, p. 1271, Sukamdi.

Muchtadi, T. R. dan Sugiyono. (1989). Petunjuk Laboratorium Ilmu Pengetahuan Bahan Pangan. Pusat Antar Universitas Pangan dan Gizi. Bogor: IPB.

Rana, Sarika. (2017). Is Brown Sugar Better Than White Sugar? You Will be Surprised! https://food.ndtv.com/food-drinks/is-brown-sugar-better-thanwhite-sugar-you-will-be-surprised-1766948/ [Akses 17 Desember 2018].

Sampurno, A. & A. N. Cahyanti. (2015). Variasi Jenis Gula Tebu Terhadap Derajat Brix, pH, Total Asam dan kesukaan Panelis pada Water Kefir. Jurnal Teknologi Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian. Vol.11 No.2 Halamaan

Sasaki , Y., Ito, L.A.,Canteli, V, C., Ushirobira, T.M., Ueda,M, T., Dias, F.B.P., Nakamura, C.V., dan Mello, J.C. (2007). Antioxidant Capacity and In Vitro Prevetion of Dental Plaque Formation by Extract and Condensed Tannins of

Paullinia cupana. Molecules. 12:1950-63.

Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). (2004). SNI 01-3546-2004. Saus Tomat. Jakarta: Badan Standarisasi Nasional.

Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). (2009). SNI 2981-2009. Yogurt. Jakarta: Badan Standarisasi Nasional.

Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). (2009). SNI 7552:2009. Minuman Susu Fermentasi Berperisa. Jakarta: Badan Standarisasi Nasional.

Surh, J., & Koh, E. (2014). Effects of four different cooking methods on anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of black rice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 3296–3304.

Thao, Ninh Le thu, Dao Thi Kim Thoa, Le Phuoc Thang, Than Thi Ut Xi, Dam Sao Mai, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tram. (2015). Effect of ethanol on the anthocyanin extraction from the purple rice Vietnam. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences (2015); 3(1-2): 45-48.

Vidal, S. Francis, L. Noble, A. Kwiatkowski, M. Cheynier, V. Waters, E. (2004). Taste and mouth-feel properties of different types of tannin-like polyphenolic compounds and anthocyanins in wine. Anal. Chim. Acta 2004, 513, 57-65.

Yusmarini & R. Efendi. (2004). Evaluasi Mutu Soygurt yang Dibuat Dengan Penambahan Beberapa Jenis Gula. Jurnal Natur Indonesia 104-110

Published
2020-11-30