Hubungan antara Big Five Personality dengan Customer- Oriented Selling pada Wiranaiga

  • Catherine Jeane Sutanto Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Surabaya, Kalingrungkut, Surabaya 60293 ‐ Indonesia
  • Laurentia Verina Halim Secapramana Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Surabaya, Kalingrungkut, Surabaya 60293 ‐ Indonesia
  • Listyo Yuwanto
Abstract Views: 27 PDF Downloads: 23
Keywords: Customer-oriented selling, big five personality traits, openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism


Abstrak- Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat hubungan big five personality dengan perilaku customer-oriented selling. Penelitian sebelumnya hanya mengukur perilaku secara umum, atau dalam kata lain tidak dikaitkan dengan perilaku pada pekerjaan tertentu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana kepribadian seseorang berperan dalam memunculkan perilaku customer-oriented selling pada wiraniaga asuransi. Responden 50 orang wiraniaga asuransi, bekerja lebih dari 1 tahun, dan secara aktif melakukan penjualan pribadi. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian survei sehigga digunakan customer-oriented selling scale yang diadaptasi dari penelitian Brown et al. 2002) yang disesuaikan dengan konteks pekerjaan wiraniaga asuransi dan big five intentory (BFI). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hanya extraversion yang memiliki hubungan dengan perilaku customer-oriented selling, sedangkan tidak pada empat tipe kepribadian lainnya (p=0.007, p>0.05). Tidak adanya hubungan antara openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness, dan neuroticism disebabkan adanya surface dan deep acting yang memengaruhi individu bertindak pada situasi penjualan.

Kata Kunci: Customer-oriented selling, big five personality traits, openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism


Abstract- The aim of this research is to see the relationship of big five personality with customer-oriented selling behavior. Previous research was seeing the relationship between big five personality and behavior in general, which in other word they were not seeing the behavior in specific job context. The purpose of the research is knowing how someone’s personality has a role in predicting customer- oriented selling behavior at insurance agents. There are 50 insurance agents as the respondent, which been work for more than a year and actively selling their product by themselves. This research is using survey method, which measuring customer- oriented selling by using scale from Brown et al. (2002) and adapt them into insurance context. Also, measuring big five personality using big five inventory (BFI). The result shows that only extraversion which have a positive significant relationship with customer-oriented selling behavior (p=0.007, p>0.05). In contrast, there’s no significant relationship between openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism and customer-oriented selling behavior. This was caused by the role of surface and deep acting which related to how individual behave in selling insurance.

Keyword: Customer-oriented selling, big five personality traits, openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism


Download data is not yet available.


Anderson, E. & Oliver, R. L. (1987). Perspectives on behavior-based versus outcome-based salesforce control systems. Journal of Marketing, 51 (October), 76-88.

Anderson, E. & Dubinsky A. J. (2004). Personal selling: Achieving customer satisfaction and loyalty. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

APA. (2017). Personality. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from

Allport, G.W. (1961). Patterns and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Bandura, A. (1991). In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action, handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 45-103). New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Boles, J. S., Barry J. B., Thomas G. B., & Brooks, C. (2001). An examination of the relationships between retail work environments, salesperson selling orientation-customer orientation and job performance. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 9 (Summer), 1–13.

Brown, T.J., Mowen, J.C., Donavan, D.T., & Licata, J.W. (2002). The customer orientation of service workers: Personality trait effects on self and supervisor performance ratings. Journal of Marketing Research, 34 (February), 110–9.

Cohen, A. (1994). Right on Target. Sales & Marketing Management. (December).59-63.

Costa, P. T., Mccrae, R. R., & Dye, D. A. (1991). Facet scales for Agreeableness and conscientiousness: A revision of the NEO personality inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(9), 887-898. doi:10.1016/0191- 8869(91)90177-d

Cravens, D. W., Ingram, T. N., LaForge, R.W., & Young, C. E. (1993). Behavior- based and outcome-based salesforce control systems, Journal of Marketing, 57 (October), 47–59.

Dibb, S., & Meadows, M. (2001). The application of relationship marketing perspective in retail banking. The Service Industries Journal, 1(21), 169-194. Retrieved May 5, 2018, from

Donavan, T. D., Brown, T. J., & Mowen, J. C. (2004). Internal benefits of service- worker customer orientation: Job satisfaction, commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 128- 146.

Dutta, B. (2011). Sales and Distribution Management. New Delhi: I K International Pvt Ltd.

Eppler, D.B., Honeycutt, E.D., Ford, J.B. & Markowski, E.P. (1998). The relationship of self-monitoring and adaptiveness to the performance of real estate sales profession. The Journal of Business & Economic Studies, 4(2), 37-51.

Feist, J., & Feist, G. J. (2002). Theories of Personality (5th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Gangestad, S. W., & Snyder, M. (2000). Self-monitoring: Appraisal and reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 126(4), 530-555. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.4.530 Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative "description of personality": The Big-Five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216-1229.

Graf, A., & Maas, P. (2014). Customer Value From A Customer Perspective: A Comprehensive Review. Service Value Als Werttreiber.

Grewal, D. & Sharma, A. (1991). The effect of salesforce behavior on customer satisfaction: An interactive framework. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 11(3), 13-23.

Hajnik, Z. (2014). Big Five Personality Traits in Marketing: A Literature Review (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Vienna.

Harris, J. G., Mowen, J. C., & Brown, T. J. (2005). Re-examining salesperson goal orientations: Personality influencers, customer orientation, and work satisfaction. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(1), 19-35.

Herce, J., Swenson, M. J., & Verbeke, W. (1996). Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research, European Journal of Marketing, 30(7), 83-97.

Hogan, R.T. (1991). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.

Hogan, J., Hogan, R. & Busch, C.M. (1984). How to measure service orientation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(1), 167-173.

Hurley, R.F. (1998). A customer service behaviour in retail settings: A study of the effect of service provider personality. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 26(2), 115-227.

Jaramillo, F., & Grisaffe, D. B. (2009). Does customer orientation impact objective sales performance? Insights from a longitudinal model in direct selling. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 29 (Spring), 167-78.

Jaramillo, F. & Marshall, G.W. (2004). Critical success factors in the personal selling process. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 22(1), 9-25.

Johari, H. & Hee, O. C. (2013). Personality traits and customer-oriented behavior in the health tourism hospitals in Malaysia. International Journal of Trade, Economic and Finance, 4(4), 213-216.

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (Vol. 2, pp. 102- 138). New York: Guilford Press.

Joshi, A. W., & Randall, S. (2001). The indirect effects of organizational controls on salesperson performance and customer orientation. Journal of Business Research, 54 (October), 1–9.

Keaveney, S. M. (1995). Working smarter: The effects of motivational orientations on purchasing task selection and retail buyer performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 9(3), 253-271. doi:10.1007/bf02230969

Korzaan, M. L., & Boswell, K. T. (2008). The influence of personality traits and information privacy concerns on behavioral intentions. Journal of Computer Information Systems,48(4).

Kotler, P., Shalowitz, J., & Stevens, R. J. (2008). Strategic Marketing for Health Care Organizations: Building A Customer-Driven Health System. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Liao, H., & Chuang, A. (2004). A multilevel investigation of factors influencing employee service performance and customer outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 47(1), 41-58.

Lebowitz, S. (2016b). Scientists say your personality can be deconstructed into 5 basic traits. Business Insider. Retrieved from

Macintosh, G. (2007). Customer orientation, relationship quality, and relational benefits to the firm. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(3), 150-150. doi:10.1108/08876040710746516

Martin, S. W. (2014, July 23). Seven Personality Traits of Top Salespeople. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from personality-traits-o

Matsuo, M. (2015). Determinants of Customer Orientation: Service Climate or Personality?. In Proceedings of the 2007 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 279-282). Springer, Cham.

Mayer, D., Warner, D. M., Siedel, G. J., Lieberman, J. K., & Martina, A. R. (2012). Legal Basics for Entrepreneurs. United States: Creative Commons.

McMurrian, R. C., & Srivastava, R. (2009). The impact of self-efficacy on expectancy, effort, and adaptive selling in a personal selling. Journal of Selling & Major Account Management,9 (1),42-53.

Mei, L. C., & Jung, C. K. (2006). Personality traits as antecedents of employee customer orientation: A case study in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Management,23(3), 478-485.

Noor, N. M. (2007). The influence of frontliner’s personality types on developing customer orientation behaviour: A look at malaysian hotel industry, Journal of Global Business Management, 3(2). Retrieved October 17, 2017, from

Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and self-efficacy. Retrieved June 12, 2016, from

Pettijohn, C. E., Pettijohn, L. S., & Taylor, A. J. (2007). Does salesperson perception of the importance of sales skills improve sales performance, customer orientation, job Satisfaction, and organizational commitment, and reduce turnover?. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27, 1 (Winter), 75–88.

Ping, L. L., Ahmad, U. N., & Hee, O. C. (2016). Personality traits and customer- oriented behavior of the malaysian nurses. Medwell Journals,10(13), 2579- 2584.

Rahman, A. (2011). Complete Career Guide. Jakarta: Visimedia.

Revelle, W. (2013). Personality theory and research. Personality Project. Retrieved from

Rindfleisch, A., & Moorman, C. (2003). Interfirm cooperation and customer orientation. Journal of Marketing Research, 40(4), 421-436

Saxe, R. & Weitz, Barton A. (1982). The SOCO scale: A measure of the customer orientation of salespeople. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(3), 343-351. Schneider, B., & Smith, D.B. (Eds) (2004), Personality and Organizations, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

Schwepker Jr., C. H. (2003). Customer-oriented selling: A review, extension, and directions for future research. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 23(2), 151-171.

Scott, J. E. (1996). Self-efficacy: A key to literacy learning. Reading Horizons, 36(3), 195-213.

Shega, T. M. (2013). Using Personality Traits to Select Customer-Oriented Security Guards (Unpublished master's thesis). Minnesota State University.

Singh, R. & Koshy, A. (2008). Salesperson customer orientation: A reconceptualization and a new definition. Indian Institute of Management Calcutta Working Paper Series No. 2009-04-01. Retrieved from rep1&type=pdf

Singh, R. & Koshy, A. (2011). SALCUSTOR: A multi-dimensional scale for salesperson’s customer orientation and implications for customer-oriented selling. Indian Institute of Management Calcutta Working Paper Series No. 665. Retrieved from 655_1.pdf

Simintiras, A. C., Lancaster, G. A., Cadogan, J. W. (1994). Perceptions and attitudes of salespeople towards the overall sales job and the work itself. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9(7), 3-10.

Spiro, R. L. & Weitz, B. A. (1990). Adaptive selling: Conceptualization, measurement, and nomological validity. Journal of Marketing Research, 61-69.

Spivey, W.A., Munson, J.M. & Locander, W.B. (1979). Meeting retail staffing via improved selection. Journal of Retailing, 55(4), 3-19.

Tanrikulu, C., & Efeoglu I. E. (2015). Examination of the differences in selling behavior on the basis of sex and gender identity, Journal of Management Policies and Practices, 3(1), 59-68.

Thomas, R. W., Soutar, G. N., & Ryan, M. M. (2001). The selling orientation- customer orientation (SOCO) scale: A proposed short form. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 21(1), 63-69.

Tracy, B. & Tracy, M. (2013). Unlimited Sales Success. United States of America: AMACOM.

Weiten, W. (2011). Psychology: Themes and variations, Briefer version (8th Ed). USA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 361-384.

Yakasai, A. M., & Jan, M. T. (2015). The impact of Big-Five personality traits on salespeople’s performance: Exploring the moderating role of culture. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 4(5), 11-26. doi:10.12816/0018960