The Effect of Subjective Well-Being, Peer Support, and Self-Efficacy on Student Engagement of Class X Students of Four State Senior High School in Sidoarjo [Pengaruh SWB, PS, dan Efikasi Diri terhadap SE Siswa Kelas X di Empat SMAN di Kabupaten Sidoarjo]

  • Tania Nurmalita Universitas Airlangga
  • Nono Hery Yoenanto Universitas Airlangga
  • Duta Nurdibyanandaru Universitas Airlangga
Abstract Views: 311 PDF - Full Text Downloads: 184
Keywords: self-efficacy, efikasi diri, peer support, student engagement, subjective well-being


An initial survey showed that school students at the Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri (SMAN; State Senior High School) level in the Sidoarjo Regency of East Java Province, Indonesia, suffered low levels of student engagement (SE).  This research examined the impact of subjective well-being, peer support, and self-efficacy on the student engagement of the students in the Class 10 of four SMAN in the Sidoarjo Regency. 328 students were involved in this research, filling in a survey related to the four variables of the study.  The results of regression testing indicated that subjective well-being, peer support, and self-efficacy had significant influence on increases in student engagement (SE). The implication of this research was that the efforts by the school, parents, and other parties was related to attention being given, outside of improvement in the quality of the academic atmosphere. Psychological well-being, peer support, as well as increases in self-efficacy, may assist students to become actively involved in the learning process.


Survey awal menunjukkan siswa di tingkat Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) Kabupaten Sidoarjo memiliki student engagement (SE) yang rendah. Penelitian ini mengkaji dampak dari subjective well-being, peer support, dan efikasi diri terhadap student engagement (SE) pada siswa kelas X yang berasal dari empat Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri (SMAN) di Kabupaten Sidoarjo. 328 siswa terlibat dalam penelitian ini dengan mengisi survei terkait empat variabel studi. Hasil uji regresi menunjukkan bahwa subjective well-being, peer support, dan efikasi diri memberikan pengaruh signifikan terhadap peningkatan student engagement (SE). Implikasi penelitian ini adalah adanya upaya sekolah, orangtua, dan pihak lain terkait untuk memberikan perhatian di luar peningkatan kualitas atmosfir akademik. Kesejahteraan psikologik, dukungan sosial teman sebaya, maupun peningkatan efikasi diri dapat membantu siswa lebih terlibat aktif dalam proses pembelajaran.


Download data is not yet available.


Amit, K. (2010). Determinants of life satisfaction among immigrants from Western countries and from the FSU in Israel. Social Indicators Research, 96(3), 515-534.

Arham, S. (2019). Pengaruh penyesuaian sosial, dukungan sosial teman sebaya dan locus of control terhadap school well-being mahasiswa perantau tahun pertama Universitas Airlangga di Surabaya [The effects of social adjustment, peer support, and locus of control on school well-being of nomadic students of first year Universitas Surabaya students in Surabaya] [Unpublished Master’s thesis, Universitas Airlangga]. Universitas Airlangga Repository.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W. H. Freeman/Times Books/Henry Holt & Co.

Bandura, A., & Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 87-99.

Betz, N. E. (2004). Contributions of self-efficacy theory to career counseling: A personal perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 52(4), 340-353.

Blondal, K. S., & Adalbjarnardottir, S. (2014). Parenting in relation to school dropout through student engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(4), 778-795.

Boudrenghien, G., & Frenay, M. (2011). La transition de l’enseignement secondaire vers l’enseignement supérieur: Rôle des représentations et motivations à l'égard de son projet de formation [Transition from high-school to college: The role of representations and motivations towards one’s educational goal]. L’Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle, 40(2), 1-26.

Busseri, M., Choma, B. L., & Sadava, S. W. (2012). Subjective temporal trajectories for subjective well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(1), 1-15.

Chafouleas, S. M., & Bray, M. A. (2004). Introducing positive psychology: Finding a place within school psychology. Psychology in the Schools, 41(1), 1-5.

Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L., & Wylie, C. (2013). Handbook of research on student engagement. Springer.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan. R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.

Demanet, J., & Van Houtte, M. (2012) School belonging and school misconduct: The differing role of teacher and peer attachment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(4), 499-514.

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542-575.

Dogan, U. (2015). Student engagement, academic self-efficacy, and academic motivation as predictors of academic performance. The Antropologist, 20(3), 553-561.

Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90-101.

Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59(2), 117-142.

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109.

Ghozali, I. (2011). Aplikasi analisis multivariate dengan program IBM SPSS 19 (edisi 5) [Application of multivariate analysis with IBM SPSS 19 (5th ed.)]. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Hagiwara, S., Maulucci, M. S. R., & Ramos, S. L. (2011). Reflections on urban science teacher-student self-efficacy dynamics. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 6(4), 999-1018.

Hallinan, M. T. (2008). Teacher influences on students’ attachment to school. Sociology of Education, 81(3), 271-283.

Hamm, J. V., & Faircloth, B. S. (2005). The role of friendship in adolescents’ sense of school belonging. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 107, 61-78.

Harris, P.N., Shillingford, M. A., & Bryan, J. (2018). Factors influencing school counselor involvement in partnerships with families of color: A social cognitive exploration. Professional School Counseling, 22(1), 1-10.

Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1991). Subjective well-being: A stocks and flows framework. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Subjective well-being: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 48-73). Pergamon Press.

Heffner, A. L., & Antaramian, S. P. (2015). The role of life satisfaction in predicting student engagement and achievement. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(4), 1681-1701.

Huang, S., Eslami, Z., & Hu, R. -J. (2010). The relationship between teacher and peer support and English-language learners’ anxiety. English Language Teaching, 3(1), 32-40.

Inayah, R., Martono, T., & Sawiji, H. (2013). Pengaruh kompetensi guru, motivasi belajar siswa, dan fasilitas belajar terhadap prestasi belajar mata pelajaran ekonomi pada siswa kelas XI IPS SMA Negeri 1 Lasem Jawa Tengah tahun pelajaran 2011/2012 [The effects of teachers’ competence, students’ learning motivation, and learning facilities on academic achievements in the subject of economics on class XI students of SMA Negeri (government highschool) 1 in Lasem, Central Java, in the academic year of 2011/2012]. Jurnal Pendidikan Insan Mandiri, 2(1), 1-13. |

Jung, E., Hwang, W., Kim, S., Sin, H., Zhang, Y., & Zhao, Z. (2019). Relationships among helicopter parenting, self-efficacy, and academic outcome in American and South Korean college students. Journal of Family Issues, 40(18), 2849-2870.

Kiefer, S. M., Alley, K. M., & Ellerbrock, C. R. (2015). Teacher and peer support for young adolescents’ motivation, engagement, and school belonging. Research in Middle Level Education Online, 38(8). 1-18.

Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262-273.

Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (1999). The relative effects of principal and teacher sources of leadership on student engagement with school. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(5), 679-706.

Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Malone, P. S., & Valois, R. F. (2010). Life satisfaction and student engagement in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(3), 249-262.

Lizzio, A., & Wilson, K. (2009). Student participation in university governance: The role conceptions and sense of efficacy of student representatives on departmental committees. Studies in Higher Education, 34(1), 69-84.

Maricuțoiu, L. P., & Sulea, C. (2019). Evolution of self-efficacy, student engagement and student burnout during a semester. A multilevel structural equation modeling approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 76(December), 101785.

Marks, H. M. (2000). Student engagement in instructional activity: Patterns in the elementary, middle, and high school years. American Educational Research Journal, 37(1), 153-184.

Neuville, S., Frenay, M., & Bourgeois, E. (2007). Task value, self-efficacy and goal orientations: Impact on self-regulated learning, choice and performance among university students. Psychologica Belgica: Journal of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science, 47(1-2), 95-117.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. (2017). Most teenagers happy with their lives but schoolwork anxiety and bullying an issue.

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2006). Moral competence and character strengths among adolescents: The development and validation of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth. Journal of Adolescence, 29(6), 891-909.

Parsons, J., & Taylor, L. (2011). Improving student engagement. Current Issues in Education, 14(1), 1-33.

Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 583-630.

Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 700-712.

Ritonga, R. P. (2016). Gambaran student engagement siswa SMA Sultan Iskandar Muda Medan [A portrait of student engagement of SMA (high school) Sultan Iskandar Muda Medan students] [Unpublished Bachelor’s final research report, Universitas Sumatera Utara]. Repositori Institusi Universitas Sumatera Utara.

Rodríguez-Fernández, A., Ramos-Díaz, E., Fernández-Zabala, A., Goñi, E., Esnaola, I., Goñi, A. (2016). Variables contextuales y psicológicas en un modelo explicativo del bienestar subjetivo y la implicación escolar [Contextual and psychological variables in a descriptive model of subjective well-being and school engagement]. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 16(2), 166-174.

Ronen, T., Hamama, L., Rosenbaum, M., & Mishely-Yarlap, A. (2014). Subjective well-being in adolescence: The role of self-control, social support, age, gender, and familial crisis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 81-104.

Rusmono, D. O., & Diantina, F. P. (2017). Studi korelasi adaptasi sosiokultural dengan subjective well-being mahasiswa kelompok Minang di kota Bandung [Colleration study of sociocultural adjustment with subject well-being on college students of the Minang ethnic group in the city of Bandung]. Prosiding Psikologi, 3(2), 741-747. |

Russel, J. E. A. (2008). Promoting subjective well-being at work. Journal of Career Assessment, 16(1), 117-131.

Salmela-Aro, K., & Tynkkynen, L. (2010). Trajectories of life satisfaction across the transition to post-compulsory education: Do adolescents follow different pathways? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(8), 870-881.

Santoso, S. (2018). Mahir statistik parametrik: Konsep dasar dan aplikasi dengan SPSS [Becoming an expert in parametric statistics: Basic concepts and application with SPSS]. Elex Media Komputindo.

Sarafino, E. P. (1994). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interaction (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

Shernoff, D. J., Ruzek, E. A., & Sinha, S. (2016). The influence of the high school classroom environment on learning as mediated by student engagement. School Psychology International, 38(2), 201-218.

Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. R. (2012). Developmental dynamics of engagement, coping, and everyday resilience. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 21-44). Springer Science.

Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571-581.

Sugiyono. (2011). Metode penelitian kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan R&D (edisi 1) [Quantitative, qualitative, and R&D research methods (1st ed.)]. Alfabeta.

Trowler, V. (2010). Student engagement literature review. The Higher Education Academy.

Van Ryzin, M. J., Gravely, A. A., & Roseth, C. J. (2009). Autonomy, belongingness, and engagement in school as contributors to adolescent psychological well-being. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(1), 1-12.

Vayre, E., & Vonthron, A. -M. (2017). Psychological engagement of students in distance and online learning: Effects of self-efficacy and psychosocial processes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(2), 197-218.

Wang, M. -T., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 28(December), 12-23.

Wentzel, K. R. (2012). Teacher-student relationships and adolescent competence at school. In T. Wubbels, P. den Brock, J. van Tartwijk, & J. Levy (Eds.), Interpersonal relationships in education: An overview of contemporary research (pp. 19-35). Sense Publishers.

Wentzel, K. R., & Wigfield, A. (2007). Motivational interventions that work: Themes and remaining issues. Educational Psychologist, 42(4), 261-271.

Wentzel, K. R., Battle, A., Russell, S. L., & Looney, L. B. (2010). Social supports from teachers and peers as predictors of academic and social motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(3), 193-202.

Weyns, T., Colpin, H., De Laet, S., Engels, M., & Verschueren, K. (2018). Teacher support, peer acceptance, and engagement in the classroom: A three-wave longitudinal study in late childhood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(6), 1139-1150.

Wibowo, W. P. (2019). Pengaruh konsep diri, kecerdasan emosional dan dukungan keluarga terhadap student engagement siswa Madrasah Aliyah [The effects of self-concept, emotional intelligence, and family support on student engagement on Madrasah Aliyah students] [Unpublished Master’s thesis, Universitas Airlangga]. Universitas Airlangga Repository.

Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Schiefele, U., Roeser, R. W., & Davis-Kean, P. (2006). Development of achievement motivation. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child development: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 933-1002). John Wiley and Sons.

Windham, C. (2005). The student’s perspective. In D. G. Oblinger, & J. L. Oblinger (Eds), Educating the net generation (pp. 5.1-5.16). EDUCAUSE.

Yuen, C. Y. M. (2016). Linking life satisfaction with school engagement of secondary students from diverse cultural backgrounds in Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Research, 77, 74-82.

Zakiyah, E. Z., Humaedi, S. & Santoso, M. B. (2017). Faktor yang mempengaruhi remaja dalam melakukan bullying [Factors influencing adolescents to conduct bullying]. Prosiding Penelitian & Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 4(2), 129-389.
How to Cite
Nurmalita, T., Yoenanto, N. H., & Nurdibyanandaru, D. (2021). The Effect of Subjective Well-Being, Peer Support, and Self-Efficacy on Student Engagement of Class X Students of Four State Senior High School in Sidoarjo [Pengaruh SWB, PS, dan Efikasi Diri terhadap SE Siswa Kelas X di Empat SMAN di Kabupaten Sidoarjo]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 36(1).