Subjective Well-Being of Indonesian Children: A Perspective of Material Well-Being [Kesejahteraan Subjektif Anak Indonesia: Sebuah Perspektif Kesejahteraan Materi]

  • Ihsana Sabriani Borualogo Universitas Islam Bandung
  • Ferran Casas Universidad Andrés Bello; Universitat de Girona
Abstract Views: 114 PDF - Full Text Downloads: 60
Keywords: children, anak, subjective well-being, kesejahteraan subjektif, family, keluarga, economic status, status ekonomi, Indonesia

Abstract

This study aims to explain the subjective well-being of Indonesian children in terms of material well-being. Indonesia is still considered a developing country, and several studies reveal the correlation between economic status and subjective well-being of adults. However, only a very limited number of studies focus on Indonesian children’s material well-being from their own perspective. This study used data from the third wave of the Children’s Worlds survey conducted in Indonesia. The sample (N = 14,576; 49.35% boys; 50.65% girls) was composed of children aged 10 years and 12 years. Subjective well-being (SWB) was measured using the Children’s Worlds Subjective Well-Being Scale (CW-SWBS) and a single-item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS) scale. Material well-being was measured using family economic status, material deprivation, frequency of being worried about family’s money situation, and frequency of having enough food to eat each day. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Cummins’ theory of subjective well-being (SWB) was used to explain the results. Results showed that children from families with high economic status who reported no material deprivation, never worrying about the family’s money, and always having enough food to eat each day displayed higher subjective well-being (SWB) mean scores on both subjective well-being (SWB) scales compared to children in families from middle and lower economic status. However, children from middle and lower economic status showed rather high subjective well-being (SWB) scores, suggesting that children are able to maintain positive feelings about themselves and their level of subjective well-being (SWB) despite belonging to a less fortunate economic situation. These results will hopefully encourage Indonesian scholars and researchers to elaborate deeper in future studies.

Penelitian ini bertujuan menjelaskan kesejahteraan subjektif (subjective well-being; SWB) anak Indonesia terkait kesejahteraan materi. Indonesia masih dikategorikan sebagai negara berkembang, dan beberapa penelitian terdahulu mengungkapkan korelasi antara status ekonomi dan kesejahteraan subjektif orang dewasa. Namun, studi yang memfokuskan pada kesejahteraan materi anak Indonesia dari perspektif mereka sendiri masih sangat terbatas. Studi ini menggunakan data dari survei Children’s Worlds gelombang ketiga yang dilakukan di Indonesia. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari anak-anak usia 10 tahun dan 12 tahun (N = 14.576; 49,35% laki-laki; 50,65% perempuan). Kesejahteraan subjektif diukur dengan menggunakan dua skala: Children’s Worlds Subjective Well-Being Scale (CW-SWBS) dan Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS) dengan butir pertanyaan tunggal. Kesejahteraan materi diukur berdasarkan dimensi status ekonomi keluarga, kekurangan materi, frekuensi kekhawatiran tentang situasi keuangan keluarga, dan frekuensi ketersediaan makanan untuk dikonsumsi setiap hari. Data kemudian dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif. Teori Cummins tentang kesejahteraan subjektif digunakan untuk menjelaskan temuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak dari keluarga dengan status ekonomi tinggi yang tidak melaporkan kekurangan materi, tidak pernah khawatir tentang keuangan keluarga, dan selalu memiliki cukup makanan untuk dikonsumsi setiap hari menunjukkan skor rata-rata kesejahteraan subjektif yang lebih tinggi pada dua skala kesejahteraan subjektif dibandingkan anak-anak dari keluarga dengan status ekonomi menengah dan rendah. Namun, anak-anak dari status ekonomi menengah dan rendah menunjukkan skor kesejahteraan subjektif yang relatif tinggi, yang mengungkapkan bahwa anak-anak dapat menjaga perasaan positif tentang diri mereka sendiri dan tingkat kesejahteraan subjektifnya meskipun tergolong ke dalam status ekonomi yang kurang mapan. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat mendorong para ilmwuan dan peneliti di Indonesia untuk lebih mendalami fenomena ini pada studi-studi selanjutnya.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: Americans’ perceptions of life quality. Plenum Press. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9781468422559

Beach, S. R. H., & Tesser, A. (2000). Self-evaluation maintenance and evolution: Some speculative notes. In J. Suls & L. Wheeler (Eds.), Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research (pp. 123-141). Kluwer Academic Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4237-7_7

Berg, M. C., & Veenhoven, R. (2010). Income inequality and happiness in 119 nations. In B. Greve (Ed.), Happiness and social policy in Europe (pp. 174-194). Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781781000731.00017 | https://repub.eur.nl/pub/22219

Biswas-Diener, R. (2008). Material wealth and subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 307-322). Guilford Press. https://hdl.handle.net/10037/2332

Blanca, M. J., Alarcón, R., Arnau, J., Bono, R., & Bendayan, R. (2017). Non-normal data: Is ANOVA still a valid option? Psicothema, 29(4), 552-557. https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2016.383

Bono, R., Blanca, M. J., Arnau, J., & Gómez-Benito, J. (2017). Non-normal distribution commonly used in health, education, and social sciences: A systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:1602. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01602

Borualogo, I. S., & Casas, F. (2019). Adaptation and validation of the Children’s World Subjective Well-Being Scale (CW-SWBS) in Indonesia. Jurnal Psikologi, 46(2), 102-116. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpsi.38995

Borualogo, I. S., & Casas, F. (2021a). Subjective well-being of bullied children in Indonesia. Applied Research in Quality of Life, November, 16, 753-773. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-019-09778-1

Borualogo, I. S., & Casas, F. (2021b). The relationship between frequent bullying and subjective well-being in Indonesian children. Population Review, 60(1), 26-50. https://doi.org/10.1353/prv.2021.0002

Borualogo, I. S., & Gumilang, E. (2019). Kasus perundungan anak di Jawa Barat: Temuan awal Children’s Worlds Survey di Indonesia [Child bullying cases in West Java: Initial findings of Children’s Worlds Survey in Indonesia]. Psympathic: Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi, 6(1), 15-30. https://doi.org/10.15575/psy.v6i1.4439

Borualogo, I. S., Gumilang, E., Mubarak, A., Khasanah, A. N., Wardati, M. A., Diantina, F. P., Permataputri, I., & Casas, F. (2019). Process of translation of the Children’s Worlds Subjective Well-Being Scale in Indonesia. Proceedings of the Social and Humaniora Research Symposium (SoRes 2018) - Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 307, 180-183. https://doi.org/10.2991/sores-18.2019.42

Bradshaw, J., & Finch, N. (2003). Overlaps in dimensions of poverty. Journal of Social Policy, 32(4), 513-525. https://doi.org/10.1017/S004727940300713X

Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. Russell Sage Foundation. https://muse.jhu.edu/book/38935

Casas, F. (2011). Subjective social indicators and child and adolescent well-being. Child Indicators Research, 4(4), 555-575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-010-9093-z

Casas, F. (2016). Children, adolescents and quality of life: The social sciences perspective over two decades. In F. Maggino (Ed.), A life devoted to quality of life: Festschrift in honor of Alex C. Michalos (pp. 3-21). Springer Publisher. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20568-7_1

Casas, F., Bello, A., González, M., & Aligué, M. (2013). Children’s subjective well-being measured using a composite index: What impacts Spanish first-year secondary education students’ subjective well-being? Child Indicators Research, 6(3), 433-460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-013-9182-x

Casas, F., Oriol, X., & González-Carrasco, M. (2020). Positive affect and its relationship with general life satisfaction among 10- and 12-year-old children in 18 countries. Child Indicators Research, 13(6), 2261-2290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-020-09733-9

Children’s Worlds. (n.d.). Children’s Worlds: International survey of children’s well-being (ISCWeB). Children’s Worlds. https://www.isciweb.org

Cummins, R. A. (2014). Understanding the well-being of children and adolescents through homeostatic theory. In A. Ben-Arieh, F. Casas, I. Frønes, & J. E. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of child well-being: Theories, methods and policies in global perspective (pp. 635-661). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9063-8

Deaton, A. (2008). Income, health, and well-being around the world: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), 53-72. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.22.2.53

Diener, E. (2006). Guidelines for national indicators of subjective well-being and ill-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(4), 397-404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9000-y

Diener, E., & Biswar-Diener, R. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? Social Indicators Research, 57(2), 119-169. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014411319119

Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2000). Money and happiness: Income and subjective well-being across nations. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 185-218). MIT Press. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/culture-and-subjective-well-being

Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2015). National accounts of subjective well-being. American Psychologist, 70(3), 234-242. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038899

Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades on progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276-302. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.276

Dinisman, T., & Ben-Arieh, A. (2016). The characteristics of children’s subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 126(2), 555-569. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-0921-x

Direktur Statistik Ketahanan Nasional, Badan Pusat Statistik [National Defense Statistics Director, Central Bureau of Statistics] (2018). Indonesia - Survei pengukuran tingkat kebahagiaan 2017 [Indonesia - Happiness level measurement survey 2017]. Badan Pusat Statistik. https://mikrodata.bps.go.id/mikrodata/index.php/catalog/809

Goswami, H. (2014). Children’s subjective well-being: Socio-demographic characteristics and personality. Child Indicators Research, 7(1), 119-140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7

Gross-Manos, D. (2017). Material well-being and social exclusion association with children’s subjective well-being: Cross-national analysis of 14 countries. Children and Youth Service Review, 80, 116-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.06.048

Gross-Manos, D., & Ben-Arieh, A. (2017). How subjective well-being is associated with material deprivation and social exclusion in Israeli 12-year-olds. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(3), 274-290. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000160

Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(4), 731-739. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.731

Helliwell, J. F., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (Eds.). (2015). World happiness report 2015. Sustainable Development Solutions Network. https://worldhappiness.report/ed/2015/

IDN Financials. (2020). USTR considers Indonesia as a developed country. IDN Financials. https://www.idnfinancials.com/news/32191/ustr-considers-indonesia-developed-country

Klocke, A., Clair, A., & Bradshaw, J. (2014). International variation in child subjective well-being. Child Indicators Research, 7(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-013-9213-7

Lai, L. C. H., Cummins, R. A., & Lau, A. L. D. (2013). Cross-cultural difference in subjective well-being: Cultural response bias as an explanation. Social Indicators Research, 114(2), 607-619. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0164-z

Land, K. C., Lamb, V. L., Meadows, S. O., & Taylor, A. (2007). Measuring trends in well-being: An evidence-based approach. Social Indicators Research, 80(1), 105-132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-006-9023-0

Lau, M., & Bradshaw, J. (2018). Material well-being, social relationship and children’s overall life satisfaction in Hong Kong. Child Indicators Research, 11(1), 185-205. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-016-9426-7

Levin, K. A., Torsheim, T., Vollebergh, W., Richter, M., Davies, C. A., Schnohr, C. W., Due, P., & Currie, C. (2011). National income and income inequality, family affluence and life satisfaction among 13-year-old boys and girls: A multilevel study in 35 countries. Social Indicators Research, 104(2), 179-194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9747-8

Main, G. (2013). A child derived material deprivation index (Doctoral dissertation, University of York). White Rose eTheses Online. https://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/5516/

Main, G., & Bradshaw, J. (2012). A child material deprivation index. Child Indicators Research, 5(3), 503-521. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-012-9145-7

Main, G., Montserrat, C., Andresen, S., Bradshaw, J., & Lee, B. J. (2019). Inequality, material well-being, and subjective well-being: Exploring associations for children across 15 diverse countries. Children and Youth Services Review, 97, 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.06.033

News Desk (2020). Indonesia still deserves special treatment in global trade: Economists. The Jakarta Post. https://thejakartapost.com/news/2020/03/02/indonesia-still-deserves-special-treatment-in-global-trade-economists.html

Nolan, V., & Whelan, C. (1996). Measuring poverty using income and deprivation indicators: Alternative approaches. Journal of European Social Policy, 6(3), 225-240. https://doi.org/10.1177/095892879600600304

Oishi, S., Kesebir, S., & Diener, E. (2011). Income inequality and happiness. Psychological Science, 22(9), 1095-1100. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611417262

Pollard, E. L., & Lee, P. D. (2003). Child well-being: A systematic review of the literature. Social Indicators Research, 61(1), 59-78. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021284215801

Pople, L., Raws, P., Mueller, D., Mahony, S., Rees, G., Bradshaw, J., Main, G., & Keung, A. (2014). The good childhood report 2014. The Children’s Society. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/80852/

Savahl, S., Montserrat, C., Casas, F., Adams, S., Tiliouine, H., Benninger, E., & Jackson, K. (2019). Children’s experiences of bullying victimization and the influence on subjective well-being: A multinational comparison. Child Development, 90(2), 414-431. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13135

Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2013). Subjective well-being and income: Is there any evidence of satiation? American Economic Review, 103(3), 598-604. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.103.3.598

Stones, M. J., & Kozma, A. (1991). A magical model of happiness. Social Indicators Research, 25(1), 31-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00727650

Tesser, A. (1988). Toward a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 21 (pp. 181-227). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60227-0

Wahyuni, S., Reswita, R., & Fitri, H. (2018). Subjective well-being anak yang berasal dari keluarga berstatus ekonomi sosial rendah [Subjective well-being of children from families with low socio-economic status]. Lectura: Jurnal Pendidikan, 9(2), 149-160. https://doi.org/10.31849/lectura.v9i2.1605

World Bank Group (n.d.). GDP per capita (current US$) - Indonesia. The World Bank Group. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?locations=ID

World Bank Group (2019). Annual report 2019: Ending poverty, investing in opportunity. The World Bank Group. https://www.worldbank.org/en/about/annual-report#anchor-annual

World Bank Group (2020). The World Bank in Indonesia: Having maintained political stability, Indonesia is one of the East Asia Pacific’s most vibrant democracies emerging as a confident middle-income country. The World Bank Group. https://worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia/overview

World Happiness Report (2020). World happiness report 2020. The World Happiness Report. https://worldhappiness.report/ed/2020/

Zambon, A., Boyce, W., Cois, E., Currie, C., Lemma, P., Dalmasso, P., Borraccino, A., & Cavallo, F. (2006). Do welfare regimes mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on health in adolescence? A cross-national comparison in Europe, North America, and Israel. International Journal of Health Services, 36(2), 309-329. https://doi.org/10.2190/AAWX-184J-88HR-L0QL

Published
2021-07-25
How to Cite
Borualogo, I. S., & Casas, F. (2021). Subjective Well-Being of Indonesian Children: A Perspective of Material Well-Being [Kesejahteraan Subjektif Anak Indonesia: Sebuah Perspektif Kesejahteraan Materi]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 36(2), 204-230. https://doi.org/10.24123/aipj.v36i2.2880