Self-Criticism in Emerging Adulthood With Adverse Childhood Experiences Increases Depression, Anxiety, and Stress [Kritik Diri Pada Dewasa Awal Dengan Pengalaman Buruk di Masa Kecil Meningkatkan Depresi, Kecemasan, dan Stres]

  • Helena Kristina Leman Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya
  • Retha Arjadi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya
Abstract Views: 148 times
Keywords: self-criticism, kritik diri, depression, depresi, anxiety, kecemasan, stress, stres, emerging adulthood, dewasa awal, adverse childhood experiences, pengalaman buruk di masa kecil, child maltreatment, penganiayaan anak


The rate of child maltreatment in Indonesia is relatively high. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with poor mental health outcomes on individuals in emerging adulthood. However, the association between adverse childhood experiences and mental health problems has not been explored rigorously in the context of Indonesia. Therefore, this study examines the effect of self-criticism on depression, anxiety, and stress on individuals in emerging adulthood with adverse childhood experiences. Individuals in emerging adulthood, aged 18-25 years, lived in Indonesia, and had a history of adverse childhood experiences, were included as the study sample (N = 450). Participants filled out a self-criticism questionnaire utilizing the Levels of Self-Criticism (LOSC) instrument which measured comparative self-criticism and internalized self-criticism. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42). The results confirmed that comparative self-criticism and internalized self-criticism significantly contributed to the increase of depression, anxiety, and stress levels in individuals with adverse childhood experiences. This finding informs adults with adverse childhood experiences that managing self-critics may alleviate their mental health problems.


Angka kekerasan pada anak tergolong tinggi di Indonesia. Pengalaman buruk di masa kecil dapat membawa dampak buruk pada kesehatan mental individu dewasa. Akan tetapi, asosiasi pengalaman buruk di masa kecil dan masalah kesehatan mental belum banyak diteliti pada konteks Indonesia. Maka dari itu, studi ini menguji pengaruh kritik diri terhadap depresi, kecemasan, dan stres individu dewasa awal yang mengalami pengalaman buruk di masa kecil. Individu dewasa awal yang berusia 18-25 tahun, berdomisili di Indonesia, dan memiliki riwayat pengalaman buruk di masa kecil, dilibatkan sebagai sampel studi (N = 450). Partisipan mengisi kuesioner kritik diri menggunakan alat ukur Levels of Self-Criticism (LOSC) yang mengukur comparative self-criticism dan internalized self-criticism. Depresi, kecemasan, dan stres diukur menggunakan alat ukur Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42). Hasil menunjukkan bahwa comparative self-criticism dan internalized self-criticism berkontribusi meningkatkan depresi, kecemasan, dan stres pada individu dewasa awal dengan pengalaman buruk di masa kecil. Hasil ini menjadi informasi penting bagi individu dengan pengalaman buruk di masa kecil bahwa pengelolaan kritik diri bermanfaat untuk mengatasi permasalahan kesehatan mental yang dialami.


Download data is not yet available.


Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480.

Aruta, J. J. B. R., Antazo, B., Briones-Diato, A., Crisostomo, K., Canlas, N. F., & Peñaranda, G. (2021). When does self-criticism lead to depression in collectivistic context. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 43(1), 76-87.

Azwar, S. (2004). Penyusunan skala psikologi (Edisi 1) [Psychological scale development (1st ed.)]. Pustaka Pelajar.

Bahk, Y. -C., Jang, S. -K., Choi, K. -H., & Lee, S. -H. (2017). The relationship between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation: Role of maltreatment and potential mediators. Psychiatry Investigation, 14(1), 37-43.

Cantazaro, A., & Wei, M. (2010). Adult attachment, dependence, self-criticism, and depressive symptoms: A test of a mediational model. Journal of Personality, 78(4), 1135-1162.

Crocker, L. M., & Algina, J. (2008). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Cengage Learning.

Damanik, D. E. (2006). Pengujian reliabilitas, validitas, analisis item dan pembuatan norma Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS): Berdasarkan penelitian pada kelompok sampel Yogyakarta dan Bantul yang mengalami gempa bumi dan kelompok sampel Jakarta dan sekitarnya yang tidak mengalami gempa bumi [Reliability, validity testing, item analysis, and norm development of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS): Based on research on Yogyakarta and Bantul sample groups which experienced earthquakes, and Jakarta and its surroundings sample groups which did not experience earthquakes] [Master’s thesis, Universitas Indonesia]. Universitas Indonesia Library. Retrieved 2022 from

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications.

Hillis, S., Mercy, J., Amobi, A., & Kress, H. (2016). Global prevalence of past-year violence against children: A systematic review and minimum estimates. Pediatrics, 137(3):e20154079.

Humphreys, K. L., LeMoult, J., Wear, J. G., Piersiak, H. A., Lee, A., & Gotlib, I. H. (2020). Child maltreatment and depression: A meta-analysis of studies using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 102:104361.

Iancu, I., Bodner, E. & Ben-Zion, I. Z. (2015). Self-esteem, dependency, self-efficacy and self-criticism in social anxiety disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 58, 165-171.

Infurna, F. J., Rivers, C. T., Reich, J., & Zautra, A. J. (2015). Childhood trauma and personal mastery: Their influence on emotional reactivity to everyday events in a community sample of middle-aged adults. PloS ONE, 10(4): e0121840.

Komisi Perlindungan Anak Indonesia (KPAI) [Indonesian Child Protection Commission] (2021). Data kasus perlindungan anak 2016-2020 [Data of child protection cases 2016-2020]. Bank Data Perlindungan Anak. Retrieved 2022 from

Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Psychology Foundation of Australia.

Michaeli, Y., Dickson, D. J., Hakhmigari, M. K., Scharf, M., & Shulman, S. (2022). Change in self-criticism across emerging adulthood and psychological well-being at age 35: The mediating role of reflectivity. Emerging Adulthood, 10(2), 323-334.

Naragon-Gainey, K., & Watson, D. (2012). Personality, structure. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (2nd ed.) (pp. 90-95). Elsevier.

Priel, B., & Shahar, G. (2000). Dependency, self-criticism, social context and distress: Comparing moderating and mediating models. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(3), 515-525.

Roberts, B. W., & Davis, J. P. (2016). Young adulthood is the crucible of personality development. Emerging Adulthood, 4(5), 318-326.

Sachs-Ericsson, N., Verona, E., Joiner, T., & Preacher, K. J. (2006). Parental verbal abuse and the mediating role of self-criticism in adult internalizing disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 93(1-3), 71-78.

Schiraldi, G. R. (2021). The adverse childhood experiences recovery workbook: Heal the hidden wounds from childhood affecting your adult mental and physical health. New Harbinger Publications.

Schulman, M., & Maul, A. (2019). Screening for adverse childhood experiences and trauma. Center for Health Care Strategies (CHCS).

Thompson, R., & Zuroff, D. C. (2004). The levels of Self-Criticism Scale: Comparative self-criticism and internalized self-criticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(2), 419-430.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). (2020). Situasi anak di Indonesia - Tren, peluang, dan tantangan dalam memenuhi hak-hak anak [The children situation in Indonesia - Trends, opportunities, and challenges in fulfilling children’s rights]. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Indonesia.

Waite, R., & Ryan, R. A. (2020). Adverse childhood experiences: What students and health professionals need to know (1st ed.). Routledge.

Wenzel, A. (Ed.) (2017). The SAGE encyclopedia of abnormal and clinical psychology. SAGE Publications.

Werner, A. M., Tibubos, A. N., Rohrmann, S., & Reiss, N. (2019). The clinical trait self-criticism and its relation to psychopathology: A systematic review - Update. Journal of Affective Disorders, 246, 530-547.

How to Cite
Leman, H. K., & Arjadi, R. (2023). Self-Criticism in Emerging Adulthood With Adverse Childhood Experiences Increases Depression, Anxiety, and Stress [Kritik Diri Pada Dewasa Awal Dengan Pengalaman Buruk di Masa Kecil Meningkatkan Depresi, Kecemasan, dan Stres]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 38(1), 038108.