The Impact of Health Message on People's Attitude Toward Wearing a Mask: The Moderating Role of Self-Construal

[Dampak Pesan Kesehatan Terhadap Sikap Penggunaan Masker: Peran Moderasi Self-Construal]

  • Denni Arli University of Tasmania
Abstract Views: 53 times
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Keywords: COVID-19, mask, masker, self-construal, health message, pesan kesehatan


With the rising case of COVID-19, governments worldwide have recommended that every citizen wear a face mask or a cover in public places where practicing social distancing would be difficult. However, many people refuse to wear masks. This study will investigate why some people refuse to wear masks in public despite clear health benefits. Using two experimental studies, 100 participants living in the United States of America were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) for Study 1, while 96 participants living in the United States of America were also recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) for Study 2. The results show that perceived severity is vital in encouraging people to wear masks. People see what they want to see. Perceived severity has a direct effect and mediated effect. This is consistent with the health belief model, suggesting that a high perceived disease severity causes proactive health-protection behaviors. Furthermore, the results show self-construal moderates the relationship between perceived severity and people's attitude toward wearing a mask. This study will make several theoretical contributions to social marketing, working on health message campaigns. The government and health officials need to work together to create a consistent message on the virus's severity. In addition, government, social marketers, and public officials need to create a distinct message to target two different segments (interdependent vs. independent individuals). This is one of the first few studies exploring the impact of self-construal on health message campaigns related to a disease such as COVID-19.


Dengan meningkatnya jumlah kasus COVID-19, pemerintah di seluruh dunia merekomendasikan bahwa tiap warga negara menggunakan masker atau penutup wajah di tempat publik ketika praktik social distancing sulit dilaksanakan. Walaupun demikian, banyak orang menolak menggunakan masker. Studi ini menyelidiki mengapa sejumlah orang menolak menggunakan masker di tempat publik, walaupun ada banyak keuntungan secara medis. Dalam studi ini, ada dua studi eksperimen yang dilaksanakan, yaitu Studi 1 dengan 100 partisipan yang tinggal di Amerika Serikat dan Studi 2 dengan 96 partisipan yang tinggal di Amerika Serikat. Partisipan kedua studi tersebut direkrut menggunakan Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa tingkat keparahan penting dalam mendorong orang untuk menggunakan masker. Manusia melihat apa yang ingin dilihat. Persepsi atas tingkat keparahan memiliki efek langsung dan efek mediasi. Hal tersebut konsisten dengan health belief model, ketika persepsi atas tingkat keparahan yang tinggi menyebabkan perilaku perlindungan kesehatan yang proaktif. Lebih lanjut, hasil juga menunjukkan bahwa self-construal memoderasi hubungan antara persepsi atas tingkat keparahan dan sikap terhadap menggunakan masker. Studi ini berkontribusi secara teoretis terhadap social marketing, terutama kampanye pesan kesehatan. Pejabat pemerintah dan kesehatan perlu bekerja sama dalam menciptakan pesan yang konsisten sehubungan dengan keparahan virus. Selain itu, pemerintah, social marketers, dan pejabat publik perlu menciptakan pesan khusus untuk dua kategori target berbeda (individu interdependen vs. independen). Studi ini merupakan salah satu studi pertama yang membahas dampak self-construal pada kampanye pesan kesehatan, terkait dengan penyakit seperti COVID-19.


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How to Cite
Arli, D. (2023). The Impact of Health Message on People’s Attitude Toward Wearing a Mask: The Moderating Role of Self-Construal: [Dampak Pesan Kesehatan Terhadap Sikap Penggunaan Masker: Peran Moderasi Self-Construal]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 38(2), e09.