Internet-Based i-Karier Literacy to Increase Parental Support in Adolescents’ Career Decision-Making

[Literasi i-Karier Berbasis Internet untuk Meningkatkan Dukungan Orang Tua dalam Pengambilan Keputusan Karir Remaja]

  • Zakiyah Rahmani Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Thomas Dicky Hastjarjo Universitas Gadjah Mada
Abstract Views: 186 PDF - Full Text Downloads: 72
Keywords: parental support, dukungan orang tua, i-Karier literacy, literasi i-Karier, career decision-making, pengambilan keputusan karier


In a collective culture, parental career support is considered an important source of consideration for adolescent students. Unfortunately, preliminary research conducted by the authors found that parents were not quite able to provide the support their children required. One of the efforts to overcome this problem is the provision of psychoeducation to increase career decision-making literacy to parents through an application named i-Karier. This study tested a hypothesis that i-Karier literacy can increase parental support in adolescent students’ decision-making. This study utilized a quantitative approach with quasi-experimental design (untreated control group design with dependent pretest and posttest samples using a double pretest). The participants were 48 parents of high school students in Class XI and XII who were selected using purposive sampling. There were nine inclusion criteria, namely: (1) education level; (2) children’s career aspirations; (3) parents’ location; (4) zero attendance in training on adolescents' career decision-making; (5) ability to operate a smartphone; (6) availability of supporting facilities; (7) low to moderate levels of knowledge of career decisions; (8) low to moderate scores on the parental support scale; and (9) parents' willingness to participate. The results of mixed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model reported a significant interaction between group factors and measurement period factors on parental support, F(2.01, 92.51) = 130.99, p < .01, η_p^2= .74. The results of the interview regarding intervention effectiveness to participants in the experimental group confirmed these findings. Fundamentally, participation in this program could improve the ability of parents to provide the support their children require when facing various major choices in higher education.

Dalam budaya kolektif, dukungan orang tua dalam pengambilan keputusan karier (parental career support) dianggap sebagai sumber pertimbangan penting bagi siswa remaja. Sayangnya, penelitian awal yang dilakukan oleh penulis menemukan bahwa para orang tua kurang dapat memberikan dukungan yang dibutuhkan oleh anak-anak mereka. Salah satu upaya untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah pemberian psikoedukasi untuk meningkatkan literasi pengambilan keputusan karier kepada para orang tua melalui aplikasi bernama i-Karier. Penelitian ini menguji sebuah hipotesis bahwa literasi i-Karier dapat meningkatkan dukungan orang tua dalam pengambilan keputusan siswa remaja. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan desain quasi-experiment (untreated control group design with dependent pretest and posttest samples using a double pretest). Partisipan penelitian ini adalah 48 orang tua siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) Kelas XI dan XII yang dipilih menggunakan purposive sampling. Terdapat sembilan kriteria inklusi yaitu: (1) tingkat pendidikan; (2) aspirasi karier anak; (3) lokasi orang tua; (4) tidak pernah mengikuti pelatihan; (5) kemampuan mengoperasikan smarphone; (6) memiliki fasilitas mendukung; (7) memiliki pengetahuan keputusan karier; (8) skor parental support scale; dan (9) kesediaan orang tua untuk berpartisipasi. Hasil analisis model Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) campuran melaporkan adanya interaksi yang signifikan antara faktor kelompok dan faktor periode pengukuran terhadap dukungan orangtua, F(2,01, 92,51) = 130,99; p < 0,01; η_p^2 = 0,74. Hasil wawancara perihal efektivitas intervensi kepada para partisipan di kelompok eksperimen mengonfirmasi temuan tersebut. Secara mendasar, keikutsertaan dalam program ini dapat meningkatkan kemampuan para orangtua dalam memberikan dukungan yang dibutuhkan oleh anak-anak mereka saat menghadapi berbagai pilihan jurusan di pendidikan tinggi.


Download data is not yet available.


Aiken, L. R. (1985). Three coefficients for analyzing the reliability and validity of ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45(1), 131-142.

Akosah-Twumasi, P., Emeto, T. I., Lindsay, D., Tsey, K., & Malau-Aduli, B. S. (2018). A systematic review of factors that influence youths career choices—the role of culture. Frontiers in Education, 3:58.

Argyropoulou, E. P., Sidiropoulou-Dimakakou, D., & Besevegis, E. G. (2007). Generalized self-efficacy, coping, career indecision, and vocational choice of senior high school students in Greece: Implication for career guidance practitioners. Journal of Career Development, 33(4), 316-337.

Baran, S. J. (2019). Introduction to mass communication: Media literacy and culture (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

Borlagdan, J., & Peyton, K. (2014). A conversation that never stops: An indicative study of the Parents as Career Transition Support program [Research report]. The Brotherhood of St. Laurence Library DSpace Repository - University of Melbourne.

Chong, W. H., Huan, V. S., Yeo, L. S., & Ang, R. P. (2006). Asian adolescents’ perceptions of parent, peer, and school support and psychological adjustment: The mediating role of dispositional optimism. Current Psychology, 25(3), 212-228.

Creed, P., Patton, W., & Prideaux, L. -A. (2006). Causal relationship between career indecision and career decision-making self-efficacy. Journal of Career Development, 33(1), 47-65.

Daddis, C., & Smetana, J. (2005). Middle-class African American families’ expectations for adolescents’ behavioural autonomy. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(5), 371-381.

Erawati, M. (2015). Prestasi akademik siswa dalam kaitannya dengan motivasi akademik, persepsi terhadap dukungan akademik dan peran orangtua [Student academic achievement in its relation to academic motivation, perceived academic support and parental support] [Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Gadjah Mada]. Universitas Gadjah Mada Electronic Theses & Dissertations Repository.

Faul, F, Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 1149-1160.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. -G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175-191.

Feldman, S. S., & Wood, D. N. (1994). Parents’ expectations for preadolescent sons’ behavioral autonomy: A longitudinal study of correlates and outcomes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4(1), 45-70. |

Field, A. P. (2007). Analysis of variance (ANOVA). In N. J. Salkind, & K. Rasmussen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics. SAGE Publications. |

Garcia, P. R. J. M., Restubog, S. L. D., Toledano, L. S., Tolentino, L. R., & Rafferty, A. E. (2012). Differential moderating effects of student- and parent-rated support in the relationship between learning goal orientation and career decision-making self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(1), 22-33.

Ginevra, M. C., Nota, L., & Ferrari, L. (2015). Parental support in adolescents’ career development: Parents’ and children’s perceptions. The Career Development Quarterly, 63(1), 2-15.

Gray, J. A., & Diloreto, M. (2016). The effects of student engagement, student satisfaction, and perceived learning in online learning environments. NCPEA International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 11(1), 1-20.

Hartung, P. J. (2013). The life-span, life-space theory of careers. In S. D. Brown, & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (2nd ed.) (pp. 83-114). John Wiley & Sons.,+2nd+Edition-p-9781118063354

Helgeson, V. S. (2003). Social support and quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 12(1), 25-31.

Hirschi, A., & Lage, D. (2007). The relation of secondary students’ career choice readiness to a six-phase model of career decision making. Journal of Career Development, 34(2), 164-191.

Iyyasi, F. (2013). Pengaruh program “Pilihanku” untuk meningkatkan efikasi diri dalam keputusan pemilihan Korps Karbol AAU [The effects of the program “Pilihanku” in increasing self-efficacy in decision-making of fresh recruits in airmen training academy corps] [Master’s thesis, Universitas Gadjah Mada]. Universitas Gadjah Mada Electronic Theses & Dissertation Repository.

Kementerian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi Republik Indonesia. (2018). Siaran pers Kemenristekdikti no. 48/SP/HM/BKKP/IV/2018 - Perusahaan rintisan inkubasi Kemenristekdikti “Youthmanual” bantu siswa memilih jurusan kuliah sesuai potensi secara online [Press conference no. 48/SP/HM/BKKP/IV/2018 of the Ministry of Research, Technologi, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia – The ministry’s start-up company “Youthmanual” assists students online in choosing university majors based on their potential] [Electronic version]. Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional.

Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia. (2019). Siaran pers BKLM, no: 024/A5.3/ Sipres/II/2019 - Aplikasi “Aku Pintar” untuk telusuri minat dan bakat siswa [Press conference of the Communications and Community Service Bureau no. 024/A5.3/Sipres/II/2019 - The application “Aku Pintar” to discover students’ interests and talents] [Electronic version]. Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia.

Laerd Statistics. (n.d.a). Mixed ANOVA using SPSS Statistics. Laerd Statistics: SPSS Statistics Tutorials and Statistical Guides.

Laerd Statistics. (n.d.b.). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS Statistics. Laerd Statistics: SPSS Statistics Tutorial and Statistical Guides.

Lea, H. D. (1976). A personalized parents’ workshop on vocational choice. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 24(4), 373-375.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Schmidt, J., Brenner, B., Lyons, H., & Treistman, D. (2003). Relation of contextual supports and barriers to choice behavior in engineering majors: Test of alternative social cognitive models. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(4), 458-465.

Lim, V. K. G., & Loo, G. L. (2003). Effects of parental job insecurity and parenting behaviors on youth’s self-efficacy and work attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(1), 86-98.

Lukens, E. P., & McFarlane, W. R. (2004). Psychoeducation as evidence-based practice: Considerations for practice, research, and policy. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(3), 205-225.

Martin, G., & Pear, J. J. (2015). Behavior modification: What it is and how to do it (10th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc..

Miller, R. L., Rycek, R. F., & Fritson, K. (2011). The effects of high impact learning experiences on student engagement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 53-59.

Mortimer, J. T., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Holmes, M., & Shanahan, M. J. (2002). The process of occupational decision making: Patterns during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(3), 439-465.

Nawaz, S., & Gilani, N. (2011). Relationship of parental and peer attachment bonds with career decision-making self-efficacy among adolescents and post-adolescents. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 21(1), 33-47.

Oomen, A. (2016). Parental involvement in career education and guidance in secondary education. Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling, 37(1), 39-46.

Osguthorpe, R. T., White, K. R., & Veenis, W. R. (1976). The career conversation: Training parents to help their children make career decisions. U.S. Department of Health, Education & Welfare - National Institute of Education.

Palmer, S., & Cochran, L. (1988). Parents as agents of career development. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35(1), 71-76.

Pellerone, M., Ramaci, T., López, M. H., & Craparo, G. (2017). The role of identity development and decision making process on adult attachment: A cross-national study in Sicilian and Andalusian adolescents. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation, 14(2), 141-150.

Ramsey, P. H. (2007). Factorial design. In N. J. Salkind, & K. Rasmussen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics. SAGE Publications. |

Ritterband, L. M., Thorndike, F. P., Cox, D. J., Kovatchev, B. P., & Gonder-Frederick, L. A. (2009). A behavior change model for Internet interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(1), 18-27.

Sahabat Keluarga - Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia. (2016). Ini info bagi orangtua soal pilihan profesi anak [This is the info for parents regarding profession choices of children].

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Life-span development (13th ed.). The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc..

Sawitri, D. R., & Creed, P. A. (2017). Collectivism and perceived congruence with parents as antecedents to career aspirations: A social cognitive perspective. Journal of Career Development, 44(6), 530-543.

Sawitri, D. R., Creed, P. A., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2014). Parental influences and adolescent career behaviours in a collectivist cultural setting. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 14(2), 161-180.

Semple, S. (1993). Parents, teenagers and careers: Piloting careers education materials for parents. University of Strathclyde.

Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Houghton, Mifflin and Company.

Sharf, R. S. (2006). Applying Career Development Theory to counseling (4th ed.). Thomson, Brooks/Cole.

Song, L., Son, J., & Lin, N. (2011). Social support. In J. Scott, & P. J. Carrington (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of social network analysis (pp. 116-128). SAGE Publications.

State Government of Victoria. (n.d.). Engaging parents in career conversations. State Government of Victoria - Education and Training.

Sundel, M., & Sundel, S. S. (2018). Behavior change in the human services: Behavioral and cognitive principles and applications (6th ed.). SAGE Publications.

Supratiknya, A. (2011). Merancang program dan modul psikoedukasi (Edisi revisi) [Designing psychoeducation programs and modules (Revised ed.)]. Penerbit Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Syahraini. (2012). Pelatihan “Menemukan Langkah Terbaikku’’’ untuk meningkatkan keterampilan pengambilan keputusan karier pada siswa MAN [The training “Finding My Best Steps” to increase career decision-making skills on MAN students] [Master’s thesis, Universitas Gadjah Mada]. Repository Civitas Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Trommsdorff, G., & Kornadt, H. -J. (2002). Parent-child relations in cross-cultural perspective. In L. Kuczynski (Ed.), Handbook of dynamics in parent-child relations (pp. 271-306). SAGE Publications.

Vismara, L. A., McCormick, C., Young, G. S., Nadhan, A., & Monlux, K. (2013). Preliminary findings of a telehealth approach to parent training in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2953-2969.

Walsh, J. (2010). Psychoeducation in mental health. Lyceum Books, Inc.

Wang, L. -F., & Heppner, P. P. (2002). Assessing the impact of parental expectations and psychological distress on Taiwanese college students. The Counseling Psychologist, 30(4), 582-608.

Weinfurt, K. P. (2000). Repeated measures analyses: ANOVA, MANOVA, and HLM. In L. G. Grimm, & P. R. Yarnold (Eds.), Reading and understanding MORE multivariate statistics (pp. 317-361). American Psychological Association.

Widhiarso, W. (2011). Aplikasi ANAVA campuran untuk desain eksperimen pre-post test design [The application of mixed ANAVA for pre-post test design experiements]. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Wright, A. J., Mihura, J. L., Pade, H., & McCord, D. M. (2020). Guidance on psychological tele-assessment during the COVID-19 crisis. American Psychological Association Services, Inc..

Young, R. A. (1994). Helping adolescents with career development: The active role of parents. The Career Development Quarterly, 42(3), 195-203.

Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Collins, W. A. (2006). Autonomy development during adolescence. In G. R. Adams, & M. Berzonsky, Blackwell handbook of adolescence (pp. 174-204). Blackwell Publishing.

Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Ducat, W., & Collins, W. A. (2011). Autonomy, development of. In B. B. Brown & M. Prinstein (Eds.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (pp. 66-76). Academic Press.

Zhang, Y. C., Zhou, N., Cao, H., Liang, Y., Yu, S., Li, J., Deng, L., Sun, R., Wu, Q., Li, P., Xiong, Q., Nie, R., & Fang, X. (2019). Career-specific parenting practices and career decision-making self-efficacy among Chinese adolescents: The interactive effects of parenting practices and the mediating role of autonomy. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:363.

How to Cite
Zakiyah Rahmani, & Hastjarjo, T. D. (2022). Internet-Based i-Karier Literacy to Increase Parental Support in Adolescents’ Career Decision-Making: [Literasi i-Karier Berbasis Internet untuk Meningkatkan Dukungan Orang Tua dalam Pengambilan Keputusan Karir Remaja]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 37(1).