Schwartz’s Values, Perceived Organizational Support (POS), and Work Engagement: The Mediating Role of Work Meaningfulness [Schwartz’s Values, Perceived Organizational Support (POS), dan Work Engagement: Peran Mediasi dari Work Meaningfulness]
Conditions of the situation after the COVID-19 pandemic have an impact on the phenomenon of employee work engagement. Employees who are accustomed to working from home are asked to adjust to the new work design such as hybrid working. By having values and perceived organizational support (POS), employees who can find work meaningfulness will have higher work engagement in any work design after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine the role of work meaningfulness as a mediator in the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and values toward work engagement. The data collection was carried out online and involved 220 Indonesian employees who worked in various fields. Study participants were recruited by purposive sampling method. Instruments of this study consist of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS), Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI), and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). The data analysis in this study utilized the PROCESS mediation analysis. The results showed that work meaningfulness significantly had a mediating effect on perceived organizational support (POS) toward work engagement (β = .743; p < .001). Woek meaningfulness also had a mediating effect on values toward work engagement (β = .581; p < .001). Especially for values, work meaningfulness had a significant mediating effect on self-transcendence (β = .129; p < .01), openness to change (β = .120; p < .05), and conservation (β = .220; p < .01), but has no mediation effect on self-enhancement towards work engagement (β = .108; p > .05). This result confirms that having meaningfulness experience during working would increase the role of situational factors (perceived organizational support [POS]) and individual factor (values) toward work engagement.
Kondisi pasca pandemi COVID-19 berdampak pada fenomena work engagement karyawan di tempat kerja. Karyawan yang terbiasa bekerja dari rumah diminta untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan desain kerja baru yang berupa hybrid working. Dengan memiliki values dan perceived organizational support (POS), karyawan yang dapat menemukan work meaningfulness akan memiliki work engagement yang lebih tinggi pada kondisi desain kerja apapun pasca pandemi COVID-19. Studi ini bertujuan menguji peran work meaningfulness sebagai mediator dalam hubungan antara perceived organizational support (POS) dan values terhadap work engagement. Pengumpulan data studi dilakukan secara daring dengan melibatkan 220 karyawan dari berbagai bidang. Partisipan studi direkrut dengan metode purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data menggunakan Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS), Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), The Work and Meaningful Inventory (WAMI), dan Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Analisis data menggunakan uji mediasi PROCESS. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa work meaningfulness secara signifikan memiliki efek mediasi pada perceived organizational support (POS) terhadap work engagement (β = 0,743; p < 0,001). Work meaningfulness juga mampu memediasi hubungan antara values dan work engagement (β = 0,581; p < 0,001). Khusus untuk variable values, work meaningfulness memiliki efek mediasi pada dimensi self-trancendence (β = 0,129; p < 0,01), openness to change (β = 0,120; p < 0,05), dan conservation (β = 0,220; p < 0,01) terhadap work engagement, namun pada dimensi self-enhancement, work meaningfulness tidak memiliki efek mediasi dalam hubungan antara self-enhancement terhadap work engagement (β = 0,108; p > 0,05). Hasil tersebut mengkonfirmasi bahwa memiliki pengalaman meaningful selama bekerja dapat meningkatkan peran faktor situasional (perceived organizational support [POS]) dan faktor individual (values) terhadap work engagement.
Arciniega, L. M., & Gonzalez, L. (2006). What is the influence of work values relative to other variables in the development of organizational commitment? Revista de Psicologia Social, 21(1), 35-50.
Ariza-Montes, A., Molina-Sanchez, H., Ramirez-Sobrino, & Giorgi, G. (2018). Work engagement and flourishing at work among nuns: The moderating role of human values. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-11.
Aryee, S., Walumbwa, F. O., Zhou, Q., & Hartnell, C. A. (2012). Transformational leadership, innovative behavior, and task performance: Test of mediation and moderation Processes. Human Performance, 25(1), 1-25.
Bickerton, G. R., Miner, M. H., Dowson, M., & Griffin, B. (2014). Spiritual resources and work engagement among religious workers: A three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(2), 370-391.
Bipp, T., Kleingeld, A., & Schelp, L. (2020). Achievement goals and goal progress as drivers of work engagement. Psychological Reports, 0(0), 1-23.
Braun, S. (2017). Leader Narcissism and outcomes in organizations: A review at multiple levels of analysis and implications for future research. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1-22.
Chalofsky, N., & Krishna, V. (2009). Meaningfulness, commitment, and engagement: The intersection of a deeper level of intrinsic motivation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(2), 189-203.
Cote, K., Lauzier, M., & Stinglhamber, F. (2020). The relationship between presenteeism and job satisfaction: A mediated moderation model using work engagement and perceived organizational support. European Management Journal, 38(5), 1-9.
Crites, J. O. (1961). Factor analytic definitions of vocational motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 43, 330-337.
De Boeck, G., Dries, N., & Tierens, H. (2019). The experience of untapped potential: Towards a subjective temporal understanding of work meaningfulness. Journal of Management Studies, 56(3), 529-557.
Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424-450.
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507.
Giurge, L. M., & Bohns, V. K. (2020). 3 tips to avoid WFH burnout. Harvard Business Review. Diunduh dari https://hbr.org/2020/04/3-tips-to-avoid-wfh-burnout
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 159-170.
Humphrey, S. E., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1332-1356.
Kinicki, A., & Fugate, M. (2018). Organizational behavior: A practical, problem-solving approach. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,77(1), 11-37.
Morrison, E. E., Burke III, G. C., & Greene, L. (2007). Meaning in motivation: Does your organization need an inner life? Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 30(1), 98-115.
Morrison, M. A. (2018). Increasing the meaningfulness of work with motivational self-transcendence. International Journal of Existential Positive Psychology, 7(2), 1-16.
Ortiz-Gomez, M., Ariza-Montes, A., & Molina-Sanchez, H. (2020). Human value and work engagement: The mediating role of authenticity among workers in a Spanish religious organization. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(76), 1-19.
Ott, A. R., Haun, V. C., & Binnewies, C. (2019). Negative work reflection, personal resources, and work engagement: The moderating role of perceived organizational support. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(1), 110-123.
Palmer, B., Griffin, M. T. Q., Reed, P., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2010). Self-transcendence and work engagement in acute care staff registered nurses. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 33(2), 138-147.
Pudelko, B. (2020). Neuroscience can explain why you’re having trouble concentrating on work or school during the COVID-19 pandemic. Business Insider. Diunduh dari https://www.businessinsider.com/why-its-hard-to-concentratework-during-covid-19-pandemic-2020-6?r=US&IR=T
Purwaningrum, E. K., Suhariadi, F., & Fajrianthi. (2020). Participation and commitment to change on middle managers in Indonesia: The role of perceived organizational support as mediator. Global Business Review, 1, 1-18.
Quantum Workplace. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on employee engagement: A quantum workplace benchmark report and analysis. Quantum Workplace. Diunduh dari https://www.quantumworkplace.com/impact-of-covid-19-onemployee-engagement
Ralston, D. A., Egri, C. P., Stewart, S., Terpstra, R. H., & Kaicheng, Y. (1999). Doing business in the 21st century with the new generation of Chinese managers: A study of generational shifts in work values in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(2), 415-427.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2019). Organizational behavior, global edition (18th ed.). Pearson. https://www.pearson.com/en-gb/subject-catalog/p/organizational-behavior-global-edition/P200000005313/9781292259291
Rokeach, M. (1971). Long-range experimental modification of values, attitudes, and behavior. American Psychologist, 26(5), 453-459.
Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91-127.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Work & well-being scale (UWES). Diunduh dari https://www.wilmarschaufeli.nl/tests/#engagement
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Defining and measuring work engagement: Bringing clarity to the concept. Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research, 12, 10-24.
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Dalam M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol 25, hh 1-65). Florida: Academic.
Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Value orientation. European Social Survey Core Questionnaire Development Chapter 07. Diunduh dari http://www.europeansocialsurvey. org/docs/methodology/core_ess_questionnaire/ESS_core_questionnaire_human_values.pdf
Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. Free Press. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2002-18216-000
Shuck, B., & Reio Jr, T. G. (2014). Employee engagement and well-being: A moderation model and implications for practice. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(1), 43-58.
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The work and meaning inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3),322-337.
Tolay, E., Surgevil, O., & Topoyan, M. (2012). Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on affective commitment and job satisfaction in academic work settings. Ege Academic Review, 12(4), 449-465.
Vuori, T., San, E., & Kira, M. (2012). Meaningfulness-making at work. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 7(2), 231-248.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 235-244.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Articles published in ANIMA are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license. You are free to copy, transform, or redistribute articles for any lawful, non-commercial purpose in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to ANIMA and the original Author(s), link to the license, indicate if changes were made, and redistribute any derivative work under the same license.
Copyright on articles is retained by the respective Author(s), without restrictions. A non-exclusive license is granted to ANIMA to publish the article and identify itself as its original publisher, along with the commercial right to include the article in a hardcopy issue for sale to libraries and individuals.
By publishing in ANIMA, Author(s) grant any third party the right to use their article to the extent provided by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.