Schwartz’s Values, Perceived Organizational Support (POS), and Work Engagement: The Mediating Role of Work Meaningfulness

[Schwartz’s Values, Perceived Organizational Support (POS), dan Work Engagement: Peran Mediasi dari Work Meaningfulness]

  • Christian Kevin Kurniawan Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Indrayanti Universitas Gadjah Mada
Abstract Views: 803 times
PDF - Full Text Downloads: 527 times
Keywords: perceived organizational support (POS), values, work engagement, work meaningfulness

Abstract

Conditions of the situation after the COVID-19 pandemic have an impact on the phenomenon of employee work engagement. Employees who are accustomed to working from home are asked to adjust to the new work design such as hybrid working. By having values and perceived organizational support (POS), employees who can find work meaningfulness will have higher work engagement in any work design after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine the role of work meaningfulness as a mediator in the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and values toward work engagement. The data collection was carried out online and involved 220 Indonesian employees who worked in various fields. Study participants were recruited by purposive sampling method. Instruments of this study consist of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS), Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI), and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). The data analysis in this study utilized the PROCESS mediation analysis. The results showed that work meaningfulness significantly had a mediating effect on perceived organizational support (POS) toward work engagement (β = .743; p < .001). Woek meaningfulness also had a mediating effect on values toward work engagement (β = .581; p < .001). Especially for values, work meaningfulness had a significant mediating effect on self-transcendence (β = .129; p < .01), openness to change (β = .120; p < .05), and conservation (β = .220; p < .01), but has no mediation effect on self-enhancement towards work engagement (β = .108; p > .05). This result confirms that having meaningfulness experience during working would increase the role of situational factors (perceived organizational support [POS]) and individual factor (values) toward work engagement.

 

Kondisi pasca pandemi COVID-19 berdampak pada fenomena work engagement karyawan di tempat kerja. Karyawan yang terbiasa bekerja dari rumah diminta untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan desain kerja baru yang berupa hybrid working. Dengan memiliki values dan perceived organizational support (POS), karyawan yang dapat menemukan work meaningfulness akan memiliki work engagement yang lebih tinggi pada kondisi desain kerja apapun pasca pandemi COVID-19. Studi ini bertujuan menguji peran work meaningfulness sebagai mediator dalam hubungan antara perceived organizational support (POS) dan values terhadap work engagement. Pengumpulan data studi dilakukan secara daring dengan melibatkan 220 karyawan dari berbagai bidang. Partisipan studi direkrut dengan metode purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data menggunakan Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS), Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), The Work and Meaningful Inventory (WAMI), dan Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Analisis data menggunakan uji mediasi PROCESS. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa work meaningfulness secara signifikan memiliki efek mediasi pada perceived organizational support (POS) terhadap work engagement (β = 0,743; p < 0,001). Work meaningfulness juga mampu memediasi hubungan antara values dan work engagement (β = 0,581; p < 0,001). Khusus untuk variable values, work meaningfulness memiliki efek mediasi pada dimensi self-trancendence (β = 0,129; p < 0,01), openness to change (β = 0,120; p < 0,05), dan conservation (β = 0,220; p < 0,01) terhadap work engagement, namun pada dimensi self-enhancement, work meaningfulness tidak memiliki efek mediasi dalam hubungan antara self-enhancement terhadap work engagement (β = 0,108; p > 0,05). Hasil tersebut mengkonfirmasi bahwa memiliki pengalaman meaningful selama bekerja dapat meningkatkan peran faktor situasional (perceived organizational support [POS]) dan faktor individual (values) terhadap work engagement.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Arciniega, L. M., & González, L. (2006). What is the influence of work values relative to other variables in the development of organizational commitment? [¿Cuál es la influencia de los valores hacia el trabajo en relación con otras variables en el desarrollo del compromiso organizacional?]. Revista de Psicología Social [International Journal of Social Psychology], 21(1), 35-50. https://doi.org/10.1174/021347406775322269

Ariza-Montes, A., Molina-Sánchez, H., Ramirez-Sobrino, J., & Giorgi, G. (2018). Work engagement and flourishing at work among nuns: The moderating role of human values. Frontiers in Psychology, 9:1874. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01874

Aryee, S., Walumbwa, F. O., Zhou, Q., & Hartnell, C. A. (2012). Transformational leadership, innovative behavior, and task performance: Test of mediation and moderation processes. Human Performance, 25(1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2011.631648

Bickerton, G. R., Miner, M. H., Dowson, M., & Griffin, B. (2014). Spiritual resources and work engagement among religious workers: A three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(2), 370-391. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12052

Bipp, T., Kleingeld, A., & Schelp, L. (2020). Achievement goals and goal progress as drivers of work engagement. Psychological Reports, 124(5), 2180-2202. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294120959778

Braun, S. (2017). Leader narcissism and outcomes in organizations: A review at multiple levels of analysis and implications for future research. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:773. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00773

Chalofsky, N., & Krishna, V. (2009). Meaningfulness, commitment, and engagement: The intersection of a deeper level of intrinsic motivation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(2), 189-203. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422309333147

Côté, K., Lauzier, M., & Stinglhamber, F. (2021). The relationship between presenteeism and job satisfaction: A mediated moderation model using work engagement and perceived organizational support. European Management Journal, 39(2), 270-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2020.09.001

Crites, J. O. (1961). Factor analytic definitions of vocational motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 45(5), 330-337. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040112

De Boeck, G., Dries, N., & Tierens, H. (2019). The experience of untapped potential: Towards a subjective temporal understanding of work meaningfulness. Journal of Management Studies, 56(3), 529-557. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12417

Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424-450. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000008316430

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.500

Giurge, L. M., & Bohns, V. K. (2020). 3 tips to avoid WFH burnout. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/04/3-tips-to-avoid-wfh-burnout

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076546

Humphrey, S. E., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1332-1356. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1332

Kinicki, A., & Fugate, M. (2018). Organizational behavior: A practical, problem-solving approach (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. https://www.mheducation.com/highered/product/organizational-behavior-practical-problem-solving-approach-kinicki/M9781260075076.html

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11-37. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915892

Morrison, E. E., Burke III, G. C., & Greene, L. (2007). Meaning in motivation: Does your organization need an inner life? Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 30(1), 98-115.

Morrison, M. A. (2018). Increasing the meaningfulness of work with motivational self-transcendence. International Journal of Existential Positive Psychology, 7(2), 1-16. https://www.meaning.ca/ijepp-article/vol7-no2/increasing-the-meaningfulness-of-work-with-motivational-self-transcendence/

Ortiz-Gómez, M., Ariza-Montes, A., & Molina-Sánchez, H. (2020). Human value and work engagement: The mediating role of authenticity among workers in a Spanish religious organization. Frontiers in Psychology, 11:76. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00076

Ott, A. R., Haun, V. C., & Binnewies, C. (2019). Negative work reflection, personal resources, and work engagement: The moderating role of perceived organizational support. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(1), 110-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2018.1550076

Palmer, B., Griffin, M. T. Q., Reed, P., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2010). Self-transcendence and work engagement in acute care staff registered nurses. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 33(2), 138-147. https://doi.org/10.1097/CNQ.0b013e3181d912d8

Pudelko, B. (2020). Neuroscience can explain why you’re having trouble concentrating on work or school during the COVID-19 pandemic. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/why-its-hard-to-concentrate-work-during-covid-19-pandemic-2020-6

Purwaningrum, E. K., Suhariadi, F., & Fajrianthi. (2022). Participation and commitment to change on middle managers in Indonesia: The role of perceived organizational support as mediator. Global Business Review, 23(5), 1218-1235. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150919892371

Quantum Workplace. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on employee engagement: A Quantum Workplace benchmark report and analysis. Quantum Workplace. https://www.quantumworkplace.com/impact-of-covid-19-on-employee-engagement

Ralston, D. A., Egri, C. P., Stewart, S., Terpstra, R. H., & Kaicheng, Y. (1999). Doing business in the 21st century with the new generation of Chinese managers: A study of generational shifts in work values in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(2), 415-427. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490077

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2019). Organizational behavior, global edition (18th ed.). Pearson. https://www.pearson.com/en-gb/subject-catalog/p/organizational-behavior-global-edition/P200000005313/9781292259291

Rokeach, M. (1971). Long-range experimental modification of values, attitudes, and behavior. American Psychologist, 26(5), 453-459. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0031450

Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2010.09.001

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Work & Well-Being Scale (UWES). https://www.wilmarschaufeli.nl/tests/#engagement

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Defining and measuring work engagement: Bringing clarity to the concept. In A. B. Bakker, & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 10-24). Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Work-Engagement-A-Handbook-of-Essential-Theory-and-Research/Bakker-Leiter/p/book/9781138877634

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (vol. 25, pp. 1-65). Elsevier.

Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Chapter 7: A proposal for measuring value orientation across nations. European Social Survey. https://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/methodology/core_ess_questionnaire/ESS_core_questionnaire_human_values.pdf

Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. Free Press. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2002-18216-000

Shuck, B., & Reio, T. G. Jr. (2014). Employee engagement and well-being: A moderation model and implications for practice. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(1), 43-58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813494240

Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.2307/256865

Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 322-337. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1177/1069072711436160

Tolay, E., Sürgevil, O., & Topoyan, M. (2012). Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on affective commitment and job satisfaction in academic work settings. Ege Akademik Bakış Dergisi [Ege Academic Review], 12(4), 449-465. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/eab/issue/39902/473777

Vuori, T., San, E., & Kira, M. (2012). Meaningfulness-making at work. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 7(2), 231-248. https://doi.org/10.1108/17465641211253110

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 235-244. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.11.003

Published
2023-01-25
How to Cite
Kurniawan, C. K., & Indrayanti. (2023). Schwartz’s Values, Perceived Organizational Support (POS), and Work Engagement: The Mediating Role of Work Meaningfulness: [Schwartz’s Values, Perceived Organizational Support (POS), dan Work Engagement: Peran Mediasi dari Work Meaningfulness]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 38(1), 105-128. https://doi.org/10.24123/aipj.v38i1.4877