The Role of Environmental Attitude as Mediator Between Perceived Sustainability Policy and Spiritual Well-Being Toward Pro-Environmental Behavior

[Peran Environmental Attitude Sebagai Mediator Perceived Sustainability Policy dan Spiritual Well-Being Atas Pro-Environmental Behavior]

  • Silverius Y. Soeharso Universitas Pancasila
  • Lisa Dwi Ningtyas Universitas Pancasila
  • Resy Sundari Universitas Pancasila
Abstract Views: 281 times
PDF - Full Text Downloads: 113 times
Keywords: pro-environmental behavior, environmental attitude, spiritual well-being, perceived sustainability policy, structural equation modeling


This study aims to ascertain the role of the environmental attitude (EA) variable as a moderator in the relationship between perceived sustainability policy (PSP) and spiritual well-being (SpWB) on pro-environmental behavior (PEB). The sampling technique utilized was convenience sampling, and 127 respondents were selected, consisting of lecturers and education staffs at several universities in DKI Jakarta. The measuring instruments utilized are the Pro-Environmental Behavior (PEB) Scale, Environmental Attitude (EA) Scale, Perceived Sustainability Policy (PSP) Scale, and Spiritual Well-Being (SpWB) Scale; with Structural Equation Model (SEM) as the data analysis. The conclusion is that the relationship model consisting of the variables pro-environmental behavior (PEB), environmental attitude (EA), spiritual well-being (SpWB), and perceived sustainability policy (PSP) "fits" and/or significant with the study data, although the relationship between several variables is not significant. Environmental attitude (EA) in this study was not proven to be a mediator between spiritual well-being (SpWB) and perceived sustainability policy (PSP) on pro-environmental behavior (PEB). Insignificant results may be caused by the small size of the samples. University management is suggested to implement pro-environmental policies to create a green and sustainable campus environment.


Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji peran variabel environmental attitude (EA) sebagai moderator pada hubungan antara perceived sustainability policy (PSP) dan spiritual well-being (SpWB) terhadap pro-environmental behavior (PEB). Teknik sampling yang digunakan adalah convenience sampling, dan dipilih 127 responden yang terdiri dari dosen dan tenaga kependidikan di sejumlah universitas di DKI Jakarta. Alat ukur yang digunakan adalah Pro-Environmental Behavior (PEB) Scale, Environmental Attitude (EA) Scale, Perceived Sustainability Policy (PSP) Scale, dan Spiritual Well-Being (SpWB) Scale; dengan Structural Equation Model (SEM) sebagai analisis data. Hasil studi menyimpulkan bahwa model hubungan struktural yang terdiri dari variabel pro-environmental behavior (PEB), environmental attitude (EA), spiritual well-being (SpWB), dan perceived sustainability policy (PSP) “fit” dan/atau signifikan dengan data studi, walaupun hubungan beberapa variabel tidak signifikan. Environmental attitude (EA) pada studi ini tidak terbukti dapat menjadi mediator antara spiritual well-being (SpWB) maupun perceived sustainability policy (PSP) terhadap pro-environmental behavior (PEB). Hasil yang tidak signifikan dapat disebabkan oleh ukuran sampel yang kecil. Manajemen perguruan tinggi disarankan untuk memberlakukan kebijakan pro-lingkungan tersebut, dalam rangka menciptakan lingkungan kampus hijau dan berkelanjutan.


Download data is not yet available.


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Akdag, S., & Yıldırım, H. (2020). Toward a sustainable mitigation approach of energy efficiency to greenhouse gas emissions in the European countries. Heliyon, 6(3):E03396.

Akhtar, S., & Siddiqui, D. A. (2021). The complementary role of social consciousness in the impact of environmental consciousness and knowledge on consumer well being and purchasing behavior, with the mediation of life satisfaction and pro-environmental attitude. SSRN Electronic Journal, January.

Anthony Jnr, B. (2021). Green campus paradigms for sustainability attainment in higher education institutions - A comparative study. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, 12(1), 117-148.

Arlinkasari, F., Caninsti, R., & Radyanti, P. U. (2017). Akankah masyarakat yang bahagia menjaga lingkungannya? [Would a happy community take care of its environment?]. Jurnal Ecopsy, 4(2), 64-70.

Azuma, K., Kagi, N., Yanagi, U., & Osawa, H. (2018). Effects of low-level inhalation exposure to carbon dioxide in indoor environments: A short review on human health and psychomotor performance. Environment International, 121(1), 51-56.

Bieler, A., & McKenzie, M. (2017). Strategic planning for sustainability in Canadian higher education. Sustainability, 9(2):161.

Bierwirth, P. (2022). Long-term carbon dioxide toxicity and climate change: A major unapprehended risk for human health (ResearchGate Working Paper April 2022).

Bissing-Olson, M. J., Iyer, A., Fielding, K. S., & Zacher, H. (2013). Relationships between daily affect and pro-environmental behavior at work: The moderating role of pro-environmental attitude. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(2), 156-175.

Casaló, L. V., & Escario, J. -J. (2018). Heterogeneity in the association between environmental attitudes and pro-environmental behavior: A multilevel regression approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 175, 155-163.

Casaló, L. V., Escario, J. -J., & Rodriguez-Sanchez, C. (2019). Analyzing differences between different types of pro-environmental behaviors: Do attitude intensity and type of knowledge matter? Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 149(October 2019), 56-64.

Chan, E. S. W., Hon, A. H. Y., Chan, W., & Okumus, F. (2014). What drives employees’ intentions to implement green practices in hotels? The role of knowledge, awareness, concern and ecological behaviour. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 20-28.

Choi, S., & Kim, I. (2021). Sustainability of nature walking trails: Predicting walking tourists’ engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 26(7), 748-767.

Choi, Y. J., Oh, M., Kang, J., & Lutzenhiser, L. (2017). Plans and living practices for the green campus of Portland State University. Sustainability, 9(2):252.

Cooper, C., Larson, L., Dayer, A., Stedman, R., & Decker, D. (2015). Are wildlife recreationists conservationists? Linking hunting, birdwatching, and pro-environmental behavior. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 79(3), 446-457.

Corral-Verdugo, V., Mireles-Acosta, J., Tapia-Fonllem, C., & Fraijo-Sing, B. (2011). Happiness as correlate of sustainable behavior: A study of pro-ecological, frugal, equitable and altruistic actions that promote subjective wellbeing. Human Ecology Review, 18(2), 95-104.

Dunlap, R. E., Van Liere, K. D., Mertig, A. G., & Jones, R. E. (2000). New trends in measuring environmental attitudes: Measuring endorsement of the new ecological paradigm: A revised NEP scale. Journal of Social Issues (JSI): A Journal of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Studies, 56(3), 425-442.

Farisy, S. (2015). Studi faktor-faktor psikologis yang mempengaruhi perilaku ramah lingkungan [Study of the psychological factors that affect pro-environmental behavior] [Undergraduate’s thesis, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta]. Institutional Repository Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Fisher, J. (2010). Development and application of a spiritual well-being questionnaire called SHALOM. Religions, 1(1), 105-121.

Fisher, J. W., Francis, L. J., & Johnson, P. (2002). The personal and social correlates of spiritual well-being among primary school teachers. Pastoral Psychology, 51(1), 3-11.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Helen, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill Humanities.

Gholami, H., Bachok, M. F., Saman, M. Z. M., Streimikiene, D., Sharif, S., & Zakuan, N. (2020). An ISM approach for the barrier analysis in implementing green campus operations: Towards higher education sustainability. Sustainability, 12(1):363.

Gomez, R., & Fisher, J. W. (2003). Domains of spiritual well-being and development and validation of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(8), 1975-1991.

Grilli, G., & Curtis, J. A. (2019). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviours: A review of methods and approaches (Economic and Social Research Institute [ESRI] Working Paper No. 645).

Hair, J. F. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Heintzman, P. (2009). Nature-based recreation and spirituality: A complex relationship. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 32(1), 72-89.

Huang, Y., Wang, Y., Chen, C., Gao, Y., KC, A., Wang, X., Zou, S., & Zhou, H. (2022). Association between violent discipline at home and risk of illness and injury in children: Findings from a cross-sectional study in rural Western China. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(13-14), NP11413-NP11435.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2021). Climate change 2021: The physical science basis (Assessment report 6). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Iyawe, H. (2019). Place attachment and pro-environmental behaviour paralysis: A study of household solid waste management. Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation, 9(1), 70-82. |

Thornton, H. K. (2019). What is it and why does it matter? In H. J. Thornton (Ed.), The it factor: What makes a teacher great? (pp. 1-2). Brill.

Jacobson, T. A., Kler, J. S., Hernke, M. T., Braun, R. K., Meyer, K. C., & Funk, W. E. (2019). Direct human health risks of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature Sustainability, 2(8), 691-701.

Jannoo, Z., Yap, B. W., Auchoybur, N., & Lazim, M. A. (2014). The effect of nonnormality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM path estimates. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), International Journal of Mathematical and Computational Sciences, International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, 8(2), 285-291.

Kaida, N., & Kaida, K. (2016). Pro-environmental behavior correlates with present and future subjective well-being. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 18(1), 111-127.

Khan, S., Karmokar, A., Howells, L., Thomas, A., Bayliss, R., Gescher, A., & Brown, K. (2016). Targeting cancer stem-like cells using dietary-derived agents - Where are we now? Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 60(6), 1295-1309.

Kim, J., Taylor, C. R., Kim, K. H., & Lee, K. H. (2015). Measures of perceived sustainability. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 25(2), 182-193.

Kitamura, T., Inoue, K., Kamihigashi, D., Ishii, H., & Shimoda, H. (2015). A case study of method to activate and continue online community for promoting pro-environmental behaviors. Proceedings of International Symposium on Socially and Technically Symbiotic Systems/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems (STSS/ISSNP) 2015, 179-186.

Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Republik Indonesia (KLHK) [The Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia]. (2020). Capaian kinerja pengelolaan sampah [Waste management performance achievement]. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Republik Indonesia.

Komori, M., Miura, A., Matsumura, N., Hiraishi, K., & Maeda, K. (2021). Spread of risk information through microblogs: Twitter users with more mutual connections relay news that is more dreadful. Japanese Psychological Research, 63(1), 1-12.

Larson, L. R., Stedman, R. C., Cooper, C. B., & Decker, D. J. (2015). Understanding the multi-dimensional structure of pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 43, 112-124.

Leal Filho, W. (2014). Campus greening: Why it is worth it. In W. Leal Filho, N. Muthu, G. Edwin, M. Sima (Eds.), Implementing campus greening initiatives, world sustainability series (pp. 359-362). Springer.

Leal Filho, W., Shiel, C., do Paço, A., & Brandli, L. (2015). Putting sustainable development in practice: Campus greening as a tool for institutional sustainability efforts. In J. P. Davim, Sustainability in higher education (pp. 1-19). Elsevier.

Lee, T. H., Jan, F. -H., & Huang, G. W. (2015). The influence of recreation experiences on environmentally responsible behavior: The case of Liuqiu Island, Taiwan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(6), 947-967.

Leung, Y. W. (2018). Generalizing and expanding the comprehensive action determination model: The case of recycling at home and at work (Master’s thesis, Nanyang Technological University). Digital Repository of Nanyang Technological University (DR-NTU).

Lidstone, L., Wright, T., & Sherren, K. (2015). An analysis of Canadian STARS-rated higher education sustainability policies. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 17(2), 259-278.

Liu, P., Teng, M., & Han, C. (2020). How does environmental knowledge translate into pro-environmental behaviors? The mediating role of environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions. Science of the Total Environment, 728:138126.

Magazzino, C., Mele, M., Schneider, N., & Sarkodie, S. A. (2021). Waste generation, wealth and GHG emissions from the waste sector: Is Denmark on the path towards circular economy? Science of the Total Environment, 755:142510.

Naeem, M. Z., Arshad, S., Birau, R., Spulbar, C., Ejaz, A., Hayat, M. A., & Popescu, J. (2021). Investigating the impact of CO2 emission and economic factors on infants health: A case study for Pakistan. Industria Textila, 72(1), 39-49.

Naranjo-Gil, D. (2016). The role of management control systems and top teams in implementing environmental sustainability policies. Sustainability, 8(4):359.

Netuveli, G., & Watts, P. (2020). Pro-environmental behaviours and attitudes are associated with health, wellbeing and life satisfaction in multiple occupancy households in the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Population and Environment, 41(3), 347-371.

Norton, T. A., Zacher, H., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2014). Organisational sustainability policies and employee green behaviour: The mediating role of work climate perceptions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 49-54.

Nurani, I. W., Wibowo, S. B., Prihastopo, Z. I., Pelangi, A. P., & Sunardi, S. (2020). Contribution of waste bank in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Bandung Regency. E3S Web of Conferences, 200:02004.

Paço, A., & Lavrador, T. (2017). Environmental knowledge and attitudes and behaviours towards energy consumption. Journal of Environmental Management, 197, 384-392.

Parker, M. (2020). Trash, turtles, and telesis : Sparking community environmentalism through art (Master’s capstone, Hamline University). DigitalCommons@Hamline - Hamline University Bush Memorial Library.

Poortinga, W., Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2004). Values, environmental concern, and environmental behavior: A study into household energy use. Environment and Behavior, 36(1), 70-93.

Ramísio, P. J., Pinto, L. M. C., Gouveia, N., Costa, H., & Arezes, D. (2019). Sustainability strategy in higher education institutions: Lessons learned from a nine-year case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 222, 300-309.

Rhodes, R. E., Beauchamp, M. R., Conner, M., de Bruijn, G. J., Kaushal, N., & Latimer-Cheung, A. (2015). Prediction of depot-based specialty recycling behavior using an extended Theory of Planned Behavior. Environment and Behavior, 47(9), 1001-1023.

Robertson, J. L., & Barling, J. (2013). Greening organizations through leaders’ influence on employees’ pro-environmental behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(2), 176-194.

Ruiz, I., Faria, S. H., & Neumann, M. B. (2020). Climate change perception: Driving forces and their interactions. Environmental Science and Policy, 108, 112-120.

Sarwono, Y. (2010). Pengertian dasar Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) [Basic understanding of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)]. Ilmiah Manajemen Bisnis, 10(3).

Sewak, A., Deshpande, S., Rundle-Thiele, S., Zhao, F., & Anibaldi, R. (2021). Community perspectives and engagement in sustainable solid waste management (SWM) in Fiji: A socioecological thematic analysis. Journal of Environmental Management, 298:113455.

Shriberg, M., & Harris, K. (2012). Building sustainability change management and leadership skills in students: Lessons learned from “Sustainability and the Campus” at the University of Michigan. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 2(2), 154-164.

Steg, L., Bolderdijk, J. W., Keizer, K., & Perlaviciute, G. (2014). An integrated framework for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: The role of values, situational factors and goals. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 104-115.

Stern, P. C. (2003). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 407-424.

Tamar, M., Wirawan, H., Arfah, T., & Putri, R. P. S. (2021). Predicting pro-environmental behaviours: The role of environmental values, attitudes and knowledge. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 32(2), 328-343.

Tapia-Fonllem, C., Corral-Verdugo, V., Fraijo-Sing, B., & Durón-Ramos, M. F. (2013). Assessing sustainable behavior and its correlates: A measure of pro-ecological, frugal, altruistic and equitable actions. Sustainability, 5(2), 711-723.

Thomashow, M. (2014). The nine elements of a sustainable campus. Sustainability, 7(3), 174-175.

Verma, K., Amitabh, Prasad, D. N., Kumar, B., & Kohli, E. (2020). Brain and COVID-19 crosstalk: Pathophysiological and psychological manifestations. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 11(20), 3194-3203.

Wang, J., Wang, S., Wang, H., Zhang, Z., & Ru, X. (2021). Examining when and how perceived sustainability-related climate influences pro-environmental behaviors of tourism destination residents in China. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 48(96), 357-367.

Wibowo, S. B. (2010). Utilisation des classifications d’Oldeman et de Schmidt-Ferguson pour l’aptitude culturale des sols à Batu, Indonésie [Use of Oldeman and Schmidt-Ferguson classifications for soil suitability for cultivation in Batu, Indonesia]. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Publication, 338, 181-182.

Wilkinson, P., Smith, K. R., Davies, M., Adair, H., Armstrong, B. G., Barrett, M., Bruce, N., Haines, A., Hamilton, I., Oreszczyn, T., Ridley, I., Tonne, C., & Chalabi, Z. (2009). Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Household energy. The Lancet, 374(9705), 1917-1929.

Wooltorton, S., Wilkinson, A., Horwitz, P., Bahn, S., Redmond, J., & Dooley, J. (2015). Sustainability and action research in universities: Towards knowledge for organisational transformation. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 16(4), 424-439.

Xiao, J. J., & Li, H. (2011). Sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 104(2), 323-329.

Zhu, B., Zhu, C., & Dewancker, B. (2020). A study of development mode in green campus to realize the sustainable development goals. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 21(4), 799-818.

How to Cite
Soeharso, S. Y., Ningtyas, L. D., & Sundari, R. (2023). The Role of Environmental Attitude as Mediator Between Perceived Sustainability Policy and Spiritual Well-Being Toward Pro-Environmental Behavior: [Peran Environmental Attitude Sebagai Mediator Perceived Sustainability Policy dan Spiritual Well-Being Atas Pro-Environmental Behavior]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 38(1), 149-173.