Leisure Boredom Affects Gaming Disorder on Emerging Adult Smartphone Users

[Rasa Bosan di Waktu Luang Menentukan Kelainan Bermain Game pada Pengguna Smartphone Dewasa Muda]

  • Mario Rizky Yuwono Universitas Ciputra
  • Stefani Virlia Universitas Ciputra
Abstract Views: 431 PDF - Full Text Downloads: 242
Keywords: gaming disorder, kelainan bermain game, emerging adults, dewasa muda, casual gamer, gamer kasual, leisure boredom, rasa bosan di waktu luang, smartphone

Abstract

The risk of gaming disorder is not only limited to hardcore gaming style, but is also found in the increasingly popular casual gaming style. This study aims to test how leisure boredom affects gaming disorder in emerging adult smartphone users. A quantitative approach with correlational design was used in the study. The criteria of the respondents were individuals aged 18-25 years, who played games on their smartphones at least once a day and resided in Surabaya, Indonesia. A total of 175 respondents participated in this research. Modified version of the Leisure Boredom Scale (LBS) and the Internet Gaming Disorder - 20 Test (IGD-20 Test) were utilized to collect data. The data was analyzed using simple linear regression. The results indicated that leisure boredom may predict the tendency of gaming disorder in emerging adult smartphone users. The conflict aspect in gaming disorder was found to be the most affected by leisure boredom, whereas the mood modification aspect was found to be the only aspect not affected by leisure boredom.

Risiko akan kelainan bermain game tidak hanya terbatas pada gaya bermain intensif (hardcore gaming), namun juga pada gaya bermain santai (casual gaming) yang semakin populer. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh rasa bosan di waktu luang terhadap kelainan bermain game pada pengguna smartphone dewasa muda. Pendekatan kuantitatif dengan desain korelasional telah digunakan dalam studi ini. Responden memiliki kriteria berusia 18-25 tahun yang bermain game di smartphone minimal satu kali dalam sehari dan berdomisili di Surabaya, Indonesia. Terdapat 175 responden yang bersedia mengikuti studi ini. Alat ukur Leisure Boredom Scale (LBS) dan Internet Gaming Disorder - 20 Test (IGD-20 Test) yang dimodifikasi telah digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data. Data dianalisis menggunakan regresi linear sederhana. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa rasa bosan di waktu luang memprediksi kecenderungan kelainan bermain game pada pengguna smartphone dewasa muda. Aspek conflict ditemukan sebagai aspek yang paling dipengaruhi rasa bosan di waktu luang sedangkan aspek mood modification ditemukan tidak dipengaruhi rasa bosan di waktu luang.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association Publishing. https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm

Ayu, L., & Saragih, S. (2016). Interaksi sosial dan konsep diri dengan kecanduan games online pada dewasa awal [Social interaction and self-concept with online games addiction in early adulthood]. Persona: Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 2(5), 167-173. https://doi.org/10.30996/persona.v5i02.734

Baker, T. B., Piper, M. E., McCarthy, D. E., Majeskie, M. R., & Fiore, M. C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: An affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological Review, 111(1), 33-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.111.1.33

Biolcati, R., Mancini, G., & Trombini, E. (2018). Proneness to boredom and risk behaviors during adolescents’ free time. Psychological Reports, 121(2), 303-323. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294117724447

Charlton, J. P., & Danforth, I. D. W. (2007). Distinguishing addiction and high engagement in the context of online game playing. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(3), 1531-1548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2005.07.002

Chen, C., & Leung, L. (2015). Are you addicted to Candy Crush Saga? An exploratory study linking psychological factors to mobile social game addiction. Telematics and Informatics, 33(4), 1155-1166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2015.11.005

Griffiths, M. D. (1995). Technological addiction. Clinical Psychology Forum, 76(14), 14-19. https://shop.bps.org.uk/clinical-psychology-forum-no-76-february-1995

Griffiths, M. D. (2005). A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Use, 10(4), 191-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/14659890500114359

Griffiths, M. D., & Davies M. N. O. (2005). Videogame addiction: Does it exist? In J. Raessens & J. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of computer game studies (pp. 359-368). MIT Press. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/handbook-computer-game-studies

Griffiths, M. D. (2008). Diagnosis and management of video game addiction. In Directions in Addiction Treatment & Prevention Volume 12 (pp. 27-42). Hatherleigh Medical Education.

Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., & King, D. L. (2012). Video game addiction: Past, present, and future. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 8(4), 308-318. https://doi.org/10.2174/157340012803520414

Hasan, Y., Bègue, L., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Violent video games stress people out and make them more aggressive. Aggressive Behavior, 39(1), 64-70. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21454

Hull, D. C., Williams, G. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Video game characteristics, happiness and flow as predictors of addiction among video game players: A pilot study. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(3), 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1556/JBA.2.2013.005

Indahtiningrum, F. (2013). Hubungan antara kecanduan video game dengan stres pada mahasiswa Universitas Surabaya [The relationship of video game addiction and stress among students of Universitas Surabaya]. Calyptra: Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Universitas Surabaya, 2(1), 1-17. https://journal.ubaya.ac.id/index.php/jimus/article/view/147

Iso-Ahola, S. E., & Weissinger, E. (1987). Leisure and boredom. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 5(3), 356-364. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1987.5.3.356

Iso-Ahola, S. E., & Weissinger, E. (1990). Perceptions of boredom in leisure: Conceptualization, reliability and validity of the Leisure Boredom Scale. Journal of Leisure Research, 22(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.1990.11969811

Iso-Ahola, S. E., & Crowley, E. D. (1991). Adolescent substance abuse and leisure boredom. Journal of Leisure Research, 23(3), 260-271. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.1991.11969857

Kaptsis, D., King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., & Gradisar, M. (2016). Withdrawal symptoms in Internet gaming disorder: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 43, 58-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.006

Kara, F. M., Gurbuz, B., & Oncu, E. (2014). Leisure boredom scale: The factor structure and the demographic differences. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 16(2), 28-35. https://doi.org/10.15314/TJSE.201428102 | https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tsed/issue/21502/230623

Kass, S. J., Wallace, J. C., & Vodanovich, S. J. (2003). Boredom proneness and sleep disorders as predictors of adult attention deficit scores. Journal of Attention Disorders, 7(2), 83-91. https://doi.org/10.1177/108705470300700202

King, D. L., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2016). Defining tolerance in Internet gaming disorder: Isn’t it time? Addiction, 111(11), 2064-2065. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13448

King, D. L., Herd, M. C. E., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2017). Tolerance in Internet gaming disorder: A need for increasing gaming time or something else? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(4), 525-533. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.072

Kuittinen, J., Kultima, A., Niemelä, J., & Paavilainen, J. (2007, November). Casual games discussion. Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Future Play, 105-112. https://doi.org/10.1145/1328202.1328221

Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). Internet gaming addiction: A systematic review of empirical research. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10(2), 278-296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-011-9318-5

Lee, C., & Kim, O. (2017). Predictors of online game addiction among Korean adolescents. Addiction Research & Theory, 25(1), 58-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2016.1198474

Leung, L. (2008). Leisure boredom, sensation seeking, self-esteem, addiction: Symptoms and patterns of cell phone use. In E. A. Konijn, S. Utz, & M. Tanis (Eds.), Mediated interpersonal communication 1st edition (pp. 359-381). Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Mediated-Interpersonal-Communication/Konijn-Utz-Tanis-Barnes/p/book/9780805863048

Leung, L. (2015). Using tablet in solitude for stress reduction: An examination of desire for aloneness, leisure boredom, tablet activities, and location of use. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 382-391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.068

Leung, L., & Zhang, R. (2016). Predicting table use: A study of gratifications-sought, leisure boredom, and multitasking. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 331-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2015.08.013

Lin, C. -H, Lin, S. -L., & Wu, C. -P. (2009). The effects of parental monitoring and leisure boredom on adolescents’ Internet addiction. Adolescence, 44(176), 993-1004.

Lumley, T., Diehr, P. K. H., Emerson, S. & Chen, L. (2002). The importance of normality assumption in large public health data sets. Annual Review of Public Health, 23, 151-169. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.23.100901.140546

Mander, J. (2016, December 9). 60% of Indonesia's mobile-only users aged 16-24. Global Web Index. https://blog.globalwebindex.com/chart-of-the-day/60-of-indonesia-s-mobile-only-users-aged-16-24/

Marlatt, G. A., Baer, J. S., Donovan, D. M., & Kivlahan, D. R. (1988). Addictive behaviors: Etiology and treatment. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 223-252. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.39.020188.001255

Nurhayati-Wolff, H. (2019a). Share of gamers by age in Indonesia 2018. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1021558/indonesia-share-of-gamers-by-age/

Nurhayati-Wolff, H. (2019b). Share of gamers in Indonesia 2018 by gender. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1021565/indonesia-share-of-gamers-by-gender/

Novalius, F. (2018, February 17). Indonesia pengguna smartphone ke-4 dunia, begini tekad Menperin dongkrak industri telematika [Indonesia being the fourth largest smartphone user in the world, here is the determination of the Ministry of Industry to boost the telematic industry]. Okezone. https://economy.okezone.com/read/2018/02/17/320/1860752/indonesiapengguna-smartphone-ke-4-dunia-begini-tekad-menperin-dongkrak-industritelematika

Pontes, H. M., Király, O., Demetrovics, Z., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). The conceptualization and measurement of DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder: The development of the IGD-20 Test. PLoS ONE, 9(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110137

Pontes, H. M., Schivinski, B., Sindermann, C., Li, M., Becker, B., Zhou, M., & Montag, C. (2021). Measurement and conceptualization of gaming disorder according to World Health Organization framework: The development of the Gaming Disorder Test. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19(2), 508-528. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00088-z

Sanyal, N., Fernandes, T., & Jain, A. (2013). Leisure boredom, loneliness and self-control in women Candy Crush gamers. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 5(8), 614-618. https://www.ijsr.net/get_abstract.php?paper_id=ART2016895

Sun, Y., Zhao, Y., Jia, S. -Q., & Zheng, D. -Y. (2015). Understanding the antecedents of mobile game addiction: The roles of perceived visibility, perceived enjoyment and flow. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) 2015 Proceedings, 141-152. https://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2015/141

Tausend, U. (2006). Casual games and gender [Unpublished Master’s thesis, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich]. Tausend Medien: Medien und Lernen. https://tausend-medien.de/research/Casual%20Games%20and%20Gender%20-%20Ulrich%20Tausend.pdf

Teng, M., Hassan, Z., & Kasa, M. (2016). Antecedents and outcomes of boredom: Why we should know? [Conference presentation]. 6th Asia Pacific Marketing and Management Conference, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Vogt, W. P. (1999). Dictionary of statistics and methodology: A nontechnical guide for the social sciences (2nd ed.). Sage. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/the-sage-dictionary-of-statistics-methodology/book243878

Wang, W. -C. (2014). Relationship between leisure boredom and quality of life: A case study of undergraduates in Southern Taiwan. International Journal of Trends in Economics, Management, & Technology, III(II), 10-14. https://www.ijtemt.org/vol3issue3/2_Relationship_between_Leisure_Boredom_and_Quality_of_Life_Vol_III_Issue_III.php

Wegner, L. (2011). Through the lens of a peer: Understanding leisure boredom and risk behaviour in adolescence. South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41(1), 18-24. https://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100006

Wegner, L., Flisher, A. J., Chikobvu, P., Lombard, C., & King. G. (2008). Leisure boredom and high school dropout in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Adolescence, 31(3), 421-431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.09.004

Wood, R. T. A., Griffiths, M. D., & Parke, M. (2007). Experiences of time loss among videogame players: An empirical study. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(1), 38-44. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9994

World Health Organization. (2018, September 14). Addictive behaviours: Gaming disorder. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/addictive-behaviours-gaming-disorder

Young, K. (2009). Understanding online gaming addiction and treatment issues for adolescents. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 37(5), 355-372. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926180902942191

Young, K. S. (2010). When gaming becomes an obsession: Help for parents and their children to treat online gaming Addiction. Net Addiction. https://www.netaddiction.com/articles/Online%20Gaming%20Treatment.pdf

Published
2022-01-31
How to Cite
Yuwono, M. R., & Virlia, S. (2022). Leisure Boredom Affects Gaming Disorder on Emerging Adult Smartphone Users: [Rasa Bosan di Waktu Luang Menentukan Kelainan Bermain Game pada Pengguna Smartphone Dewasa Muda]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 37(1). https://doi.org/10.24123/aipj.v37i1.2324